FREE EKG Technician Certification Question and Answers

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What do the tiny squares on the EKG paper's horizontal axis represent?

Correct! Wrong!

" The small squares horizontally on an EKG paper represent a standardized unit of time. Each small square typically corresponds to 0.04 seconds (40 milliseconds) in duration. The EKG paper consists of a grid with small squares and larger squares. The larger squares are typically made up of five smaller squares, which means that one large square represents 0.20 seconds (200 milliseconds) in duration."

The ST segment is what?

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The pause between ventricular depolarization and ventricular repolarization is not specifically referred to as a segment or interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Instead, it is a period of relative isoelectricity before the onset of the T wave, following the completion of the QRS complex.

What is the dominant ion outside of cells?

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The major extracellular ion in the human body is sodium (Na+). Sodium plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, conducting nerve impulses, and facilitating various cellular functions. In the extracellular fluid, sodium ions are more abundant compared to the intracellular fluid. This concentration gradient is maintained by ion channels, pumps, and transporters present in cell membranes, allowing for the movement of sodium ions into and out of cells.

What part of the EKG shows how long the ventricles were in systole?

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The QT interval is a measure of how long ventricular systole lasts overall, including depolarization and repolarization. Beginning at the commencement of the QRS complex, it finishes at the conclusion of the T wave. The time it takes for the ventricles to contract and subsequently relax is measured by the QT interval.

Where is the sinoatrial node located?

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The sinoatrial (SA) node, also known as the natural pacemaker of the heart, is located in the upper right atrium of the heart. Specifically, it is positioned in the superior part of the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava.

Which of these represents a key step in the cardiac cycle?

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All three options - Inflow, Isovolumic relaxation, and Ejection - represent major stages of activity in the cardiac cycle. These stages of the cardiac cycle - Inflow, Isovolumic relaxation, and Ejection - represent key events that ensure efficient blood flow, filling, and pumping action of the heart.

The proper lead for the midaxillary line on the left side of the fifth intercostal gap is:

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The correct lead for the 5th intercostal space, midaxillary line on the left side is V6. In a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), V6 is one of the precordial leads. Precordial leads are placed on the chest, and V6 specifically corresponds to the 5th intercostal space on the midaxillary line on the left side of the chest.

The waveforms in the middle are referred to as what?

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In an EKG, the waveforms in the middle refer to the segments, not the waveforms themselves.The term "segment" is used to describe specific portions of the EKG waveform between two waves. The segments in an EKG include the PR segment, ST segment, and TP segment.

When blood flow to the heart muscle is stopped or abruptly reduced for long enough to result in cell death, myocardial infarction occurs.

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Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when there is a significant interruption or reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. This interruption is typically caused by a sudden blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries, which are responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the heart.

The PR portion is what?

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The depolarization of the AV node and its delay, as well as the subsequent depolarization of the Bundle of His and Bundle branches, occur during the PR interval, which includes the PR segment and the P wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG).

What is the dominant ion inside cells?

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The major intracellular ion in the human body is potassium (K+). Potassium plays a vital role in many physiological processes and is essential for maintaining proper cell function. Within cells, potassium ions are responsible for maintaining the electrical potential across the cell membrane, which is crucial for various cellular activities, including nerve cell signaling, muscle contraction (including the heart), and maintaining fluid balance within cells.

A typical, healthy heart beats __________ beats per minute.

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In a normal, healthy heart, there are typically 72 cardiac cycles per minute. This corresponds to a heart rate of 72 beats per minute (bpm).The term "cardiac cycle" refers to the complete sequence of events that occur during one heartbeat. It includes both the systolic and diastolic phases of the heart.The coordination and timing of these phases result in the rhythmic beating of the heart. The average heart rate of 72 bpm represents the number of times the heart contracts and completes one cardiac cycle in a minute.

What is the ideal breaths-to-compressions ratio during CPR?

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For single-rescuer CPR: Perform cycles of 30 compressions followed by 2 breaths. This is a compression-to-ventilation ratio of 30:2. For two-rescuer CPR: Perform cycles of 30 compressions followed by 2 breaths. This ratio can be maintained or adjusted to 15 compressions followed by 2 breaths, with the second rescuer providing the breaths simultaneously with the first rescuer performing compressions.

The term "ventricular diastole" means ventricular:

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Ventricular diastole refers to ventricular relaxation and filling. During ventricular diastole, the ventricles are in a relaxed state, allowing them to fill with blood.

What effects does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the heart, and which receptors are involved?

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In the context of vasodilation, cholinergic receptors typically play a minor role, as the parasympathetic nervous system, which primarily releases acetylcholine, generally promotes vasoconstriction rather than vasodilation.

What stands for the QRS complex?

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The QRS complex on an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) represents the depolarization (contraction) of the ventricles of the heart. During the QRS complex, the electrical signal that has traveled through the atria and the atrioventricular (AV) node reaches the ventricles. This leads to the depolarization of the ventricular myocardium, initiating the contraction of the ventricles and subsequent pumping of blood to the lungs and the rest of the body.

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