PTCB Pharmacology #2
AcipHex contains which proton-pump inhibitor as the active ingredient?
The PPI drug AcipHex contains the active component rabeprazole.
Excess stomach acid production is treated using proton-pump inhibitors, which are used to treat dyspepsia and GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux disease).
The suffix -prazole can be used to identify all proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, pantoprazole etc.).
Which of these pharmacokinetic stages is the 'first pass effect'?
The 'first-pass effect' describes drug metabolism in which an orally administered drug's concentration is lowered before it reaches the systemic circulation.
To put it another way, medications taken orally reach the GI tract, where they are absorbed and processed by the liver.
The substance is metabolized in the liver, with the remainder entering the bloodstream.
The first-pass effect describes the phase of drug metabolism in which drug concentration decreases due to liver metabolism.
Which ailment is treated with drugs that inhibit the PDE5 enzyme?
Erectile dysfunction is treated with drugs that block the PDE5 enzyme (phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme).
Sildenafil (Viagra), tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil are other examples (Levitra).
Note that sildenafil and tadalafil can be used to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Note #2: PDE5 inhibitors can all be distinguished by the suffix -afil.
Which of these medicine classes has been linked to a chronic, dry cough?
ACE inhibitors might cause a dry cough that persists (due to a build-up of kinins in the lung).
Captopril, ramipril, lisinopril, and perindopril are examples of ACE inhibitors (any drug that ends in the suffix -pril is an ACE inhibitor).
Cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure are treated with ACE inhibitors
Which of these medications can cause bronchospasm in asthmatics?
In people with asthma, beta-blockers can cause bronchospasm.
Bronchospasm occurs when the airways (bronchial tubes) contract and spasm. This makes breathing extremely difficult for asthma patients.
Asthma is treated with beta-2 agonists (drugs such as albuterol, formoterol, and terbutaline).
As a result, blocking beta-receptors can counteract the effects of beta-2 agonists, resulting in bronchoconstriction.
The medicine, Imitrex, is used in the treatment of which condition?
The active ingredient in the drug Imitrex is sumatriptan, which is used to treat migraines and cluster headaches.
All medications ending in -triptan are used to treat migraines (zolmitriptan, sumatriptan, rizatriptan).
Which area of the body receives drugs supplied via the intrathecal route?
Intrathecal medicines are injected into the spinal canal.
Buccal medications are injected between the gum and the cheek.
Drugs are injected into the bladder intravenously.
Drugs are injected into joint spaces intra-articularly.
What is the daily limit for purchasing pseudoephedrine?
Pseudoephedrine has a daily purchase restriction of 3.6 grams (approximately a 15-day supply).
There's also a 9-gram limit each 30-day period.
To purchase, the patient must show government-issued identity and sign a logbook, which is usually electronic and may be accessed at any time by law enforcement.
These restrictions are still in effect to prevent the manufacture of illegal meth.
A MAO inhibitor is which of the following drugs?
Selegiline, an MAO inhibitor, is an example (monoamine oxidase inhibitor).
Selegiline is used to treat Parkinson's disease and severe depressive disorder.
Foods high in tyramine should be avoided by patients taking MAO inhibitors since they can provoke a hypertensive crisis.
If a patient is on which of the following medications, a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test should be done on a regular basis?
If a patient is receiving levothyroxine, a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test should be done on a regular basis.
A rapid-acting insulin is which of the following medications?
Iispro (Humalog) insulin is a fast-acting insulin.