FREE TExES (ESL 154) Questions and Answers

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Listening, Speaking, Reading, & Writing is learn concurrently.

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ESL (English as a Second Language) education recognizes the interrelatedness of the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Instead of treating them as separate and independent skills, ESL instruction typically integrates and develops these skills concurrently.

Negative Transfer (Interference): Using pronunciation, rules, idioms, or words with different meanings or implications.

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When learning a second language, learners may encounter various difficulties that can impede their progress. One common difficulty is negative transfer, also known as interference. Negative transfer occurs when elements from the learner's first language (L1) influence their use of the second language (L2), leading to errors or misunderstandings.

Refers to an instructional activity that takes place in the form of a dialogue between teachers and students regarding the segment of the text. Structure by 4 strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.

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Reciprocal Teaching is an instructional activity that involves a dialogue between teachers and students to promote comprehension and critical thinking skills. It focuses on developing students' ability to actively engage with a text through a structured process that includes four key strategies: summarizing, question generating, clarifying, and predicting.

is an effective teaching technique whereby small groups of students, each with varying degrees of aptitude, employ a range of learning exercises to increase their grasp of a subject.

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Cooperative learning is an effective teaching technique that involves organizing students into small groups to work together on learning tasks or projects. In a cooperative learning environment, students with varying degrees of aptitude collaborate to achieve a common goal, enhancing their understanding of a subject.

The Tejas LEE was developed to address areas important to the development of Spanish reading and comprehension.

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The Tejas LEE (Texas Spanish Literacy Assessment) is an assessment tool specifically designed to evaluate and support the development of Spanish reading and comprehension skills. It was developed to meet the needs of Spanish-speaking students who are learning to read in Spanish or developing their literacy skills in their native language.

Through the use of simplified language, instructor modeling, visuals and graphics, cooperative learning, and hands-on learning, scaffolding refers to supplying contextual supports for meaning (Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2003, p. 345).

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Scaffolding learning, as described by Ovando, Collier, and Combs (2003), refers to the process of providing contextual supports to learners to help them understand and grasp new concepts or skills. It involves using various instructional techniques and strategies to bridge the gap between what learners already know and what they need to learn, gradually enabling them to achieve independence and mastery.

Total physical response; say a single action word then perform that action.

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Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method developed by Dr. James J. Asher. It is based on the premise that language learning is enhanced when physical movement and action are incorporated into the instructional process. TPR emphasizes the association of language with physical actions, allowing learners to respond to verbal commands through movement.

CALP, cognitive academic language proficiency.

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CALP, which stands for Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, is a concept developed by Jim Cummins, a renowned linguist and researcher in the field of second language acquisition. CALP refers to the language proficiency required for academic achievement in content areas such as mathematics, science, social studies, and language arts. It is the ability to understand and use the complex language and vocabulary necessary to comprehend and express academic concepts and ideas.

When under extreme stress, fear, or embarrassment, does the ELL learner put up a mental barrier?

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In language learning, the affective filter refers to the emotional and psychological factors that can act as a mental barrier and affect a learner's language acquisition. When a learner experiences extreme stress, fear, embarrassment, or anxiety, their affective filter may be heightened, hindering their ability to process and acquire language effectively. This emotional state can create a psychological barrier that interferes with language learning.

Cooperative learning, Learning Experience Assessment, Content-Based Learning, Language Scaffolding (Ovando), TPR Total Physical Response

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ESL (English as a Second Language) teaching methods encompass a range of instructional approaches and strategies used to facilitate English language acquisition for non-native English speakers.

Input, Monitor, Natural Order, Acquisition/Learning, Affective Filter, and Input Hypotheses.

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Stephen Krashen, a prominent linguist and language acquisition theorist, proposed several hypotheses that explain the process of second language acquisition.

The proper use of language; guidelines for efficient communication and meeting the demands of one's listeners.

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Pragmatics refers to the study of how language is used in real-life situations and the principles and rules that govern effective and appropriate communication. It focuses on understanding how context, social norms, and the intentions of speakers and listeners influence the meaning and interpretation of language beyond the literal or dictionary definitions of words and sentences.

The Texas Primary Reading Inventory gives teachers the opportunity to quickly gather information about the development of their students' reading concepts. It also engages students with fun tasks and engaging stories while giving teachers the chance to gather additional information to better match reading instruction to the needs of individual students.

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The Texas Primary Reading Inventory (TPRI) is an assessment tool used by teachers in Texas to gather information about students' reading development and tailor reading instruction to individual student needs. The TPRI aims to assess and monitor students' reading concepts and skills, providing valuable insights for instructional planning.

Knowledge > Comprehension > Application > Analysis > Synthesis > Evaluation.

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Bloom's Taxonomy is a framework that categorizes educational objectives and cognitive skills into a hierarchical order. It was developed by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues in the 1950s and has since been widely used in educational settings. The taxonomy organizes cognitive processes into six levels, from lower-order thinking skills to higher-order thinking skills.

Native Language is used in the core academic phase and will be used as necessary.

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The developmental bilingual approach, also known as maintenance bilingual education, is an instructional method that emphasizes the continued use and development of the student's native language while gradually incorporating the second language (typically the majority language) as necessary. This approach aims to promote academic achievement in both languages and preserve the student's proficiency in their native language.

"Conscious learning can only serve as a monitor or an editor,"

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The Monitor Hypothesis, proposed by linguist Stephen Krashen, suggests that conscious learning has a limited role in language acquisition and can only act as a monitor or an editor. According to this hypothesis, conscious learning refers to the explicit knowledge of grammar rules and language forms that are learned through formal instruction, such as studying grammar rules or memorizing vocabulary lists.

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