FREE NSCA-CPT Human Anatomy and Physiology Diagnostic Questions and Answers

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Which of the following relationships uses the directional terms in the right way?

Correct! Wrong!

In relation to the bellybutton, the head is superior (closer to the head). The bellybutton is not appendicular, as the hands are (distant from the core). The skin is superficial, whereas the kidneys are deep (at the surface). The back of the neck is posterior and the face is anterior (front of body) (back of body).

The body is divided into which of the following orientations by a coronal section?

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A coronal section traverses the body from right to left, separating it into an anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portion. When a coronal section of the brain is used to examine it, the lateral ventricle and thalamus are typically highly visible. If the body were to be divided into inferior and superior sections, such as head and body, a transverse section would have been necessary. The only way to section the body through the horizontal plane is with a transverse section. A sagittal section traverses the body from front to back, dividing it into left and right regions. A medial sagittal section is a perfectly centered sagittal slice.

The term "proximal" refers to a location that is close to another.

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Proximal refers to structures closer to the trunk, such as the shoulder or hip, whereas distal refers to a location further from the trunk and appendage end. The names of the three phalanges in each finger are determined by their orientation. Medial structures are closer to the midline than lateral ones. Adjacent describes structures that are adjacent to one another.

Which of the following orientations is the body divided into by a transverse section?

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The only horizontal view of the body that separates it into superior and inferior regions is a transverse slice. The caudate and lentiform nucleus are displayed using it. Sagittal slices divide the body into left and right regions, while coronal sections divide it into anterior and posterior regions.

What would you call a person's movement if they extended their arms straight out to the side at their shoulders and then brought them in close to their sides?

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A body part is adducted when it moves toward the body's midline. As a result, adduction occurs when someone brings their arms down to their sides while holding them straight out at the shoulders. Adduction moves the fingers and toes toward the middle of the hand or foot. Adduction would be bringing two fingers together, for instance, if they were spread widely apart.

The femur connects to the hip joint via _________ and the knee via .

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Anatomical terms are a straightforward way to communicate without ambiguity about specific body parts. If the head is the most superior body part and the feet are the most inferior, then the femur is inferior to the hip but superior to the knee joint.

The elbow is distal to which of the following structures?

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A structure is further from the point of attachment to the body when it is distal to another structure. The wrist is distal to the elbow because it is attached to the body at a distance greater than that of the elbow. The shoulder is regarded as superior (above) and proximal (closer to the point of attachment) to the elbow.

Which of the following describes the "posterior" in human anatomical position?

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In humans, the anterior-posterior directions refer to the abdomen and back, respectively. This same plane is also referred to as the ventral and dorsal directions. The terms dorsal and posterior are synonymous. The opposite of dorsal, ventral refers to the body's front or anterior region. The term caudal refers to the lower region of the body and is similar to inferior. Superior refers to the upper portion of the body and is the opposite of inferior. Unlike lateral, which refers to the region farthest from the midline, distal refers to the region farthest from the attachment of an extremity.

What in directional anatomy does the term "lateral" mean?

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The navel and nose are considered lateral body parts because they are located further away from the body's midline. It consists of parts like hips, shoulders, and ears. The uterus is medial to the ovaries, and the heart is medial to the lungs. Medial is the opposite of this. Although they are directional descriptors, the latissimus dorsi muscles are unrelated to directional terms. If midline-attached anatomical structures veer further to the left or right, they are said to be lateral.

Which of the following pairs of orientations are not opposites?

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A word that means the opposite is frequently used in terms that describe a structure's orientation so that they can be related to one another. A structure is said to be proximal if it is located near a point of attachment, and lateral if it is located away from the body's center. Distal, which means away from the point of attachment, is the opposite of proximal, and medial, which means toward the center line, is the opposite of lateral. Superior refers to what is above, and inferior to what is below. The terms anterior and posterior denote the front and the back, respectively. Deep denotes that a structure is beneath other structures, while superficial denotes that it is close to the surface.

With radial wrist deviation, which way does your hand move?

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Radial deviation of the wrist causes the hand to move laterally away from the body's midline in anatomical position. The hand will move medially as a result of ulnar wrist deviation.

The body is divided into _________ by a coronal plane.

Correct! Wrong!

Any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral (anterior) and dorsal (posterior) segments is a coronal plane. A coronal plane will traverse the body from the right side to the left (left). A sagittal plane is a vertical plane that crosses the body from front (anterior) to back (posterior) and divides the body into the right and left sides (posterior). A transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior regions and crosses the body along its horizontal axis.

What posture does pronation's opposite?

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The wrist is rotated into a pronated position when this happens. Rotating the wrist so that the palm is facing upward has the opposite effect. Supination is the term for this motion. The act of eversion involves rotating the foot so that the medial area is pointed downward. Bringing the foot and leg closer together is known as dorsiflexion. When several muscles work together at a joint, it is known as circumduction. For example, when the index finger is rotated in tiny circles.

What is the opposite of anterior?

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In reference to the front and back of the body, anterior and posterior are opposites. The terms "front" and "back," ventral and dorsal, are interchangeable. In thoracic biology or medicine, the sternal is a reference point. In comparison to deep, superficial denotes proximity to the skin. While inferior denotes "downward," superior denotes "upward" and is frequently used as a synonym for cranial.

Which of the following, when viewed from anatomical position, faces the same way as "superior" when considering the human arm?

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The limbs of the human body are oriented superior to inferior in the anatomical position. Since the limbs are free-hanging, distal regions will be associated with inferior, while proximal regions will be associated with superior. Superior refers to the highest region of the body, whereas proximal refers to the region closest to the limb attachment point. These terms refer to the same anatomical region of the arm, while distal and inferior would also correspond.

Which cavity of the body does the brain inhabit?

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Several smaller cavities are subdivided from the body's two primary cavities. The dorsal cavity and the ventral cavity are the primary cavities. The dorsal cavity is divided into the vertebral cavity, which contains the spinal cord and runs through the vertebrae, and the cranial cavity. The brain is contained within the cranial cavity of the skull. Since the cranial cavity is not listed, the best answer choice is the dorsal cavity. The ventral cavity is more complex and contains more subcavities than the dorsal cavity. The primary divisions are the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities. The diaphragm divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. There are no specialized structures called the anterior cavity or the skull cavity.

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