# FREE NSCA-CPT Biomechanics Questions and Answers

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#### The rate of rotation of an object

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The rotational speed of an object around a particular axis or point is referred to as its angular velocity. It measures the rotational or spinning speed of an object. The magnitude of angular velocity is measured in radians per second (rad/s) or degrees per second (°/s), representing the angular position change per unit of time.

#### Contracts against the pull of contracting statically

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Stabilizer muscles contract statically against the pull of contracting muscles to provide support and maintain joint stability during movement, preventing unwanted or excessive motion and contributing to the control and safety of movement as a whole.

#### Cross-sectional area of muscle

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Measurement of the size of a muscle in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the direction of the muscle fibers is known as Cross-Sectional Area (CSA) in muscles. Because there are more muscle fibers available for contraction, a larger muscle CSA indicates a greater ability to generate force. It has a big impact on how strong muscles are and how well athletes perform.

#### Variation of velocity per unit of time

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A change in velocity per unit of time is referred to as acceleration. Acceleration occurs whenever there is a change in either the speed or direction of an object's motion. In physics, velocity is a vector quantity that includes both magnitude (speed) and direction.

#### Compared to external force

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Human movement and exercise depend heavily on both internal force (muscle force) and external force (resistance force). The muscles of the body produce internal force, whereas objects or outside sources apply external force. To move, perform, and perform at your best, these forces must be balanced and work together effectively.

#### Repeated explosive exertion

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Repetitive explosive effort involves executing successive explosive movements with a high output of force. It is vital for athletes seeking to improve their speed, agility, and overall power, as it is a crucial factor in athletic performance for activities requiring rapid and forceful actions.

#### Between 0.6 and 0.8 seconds

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No matter how long it takes to exert that force, maximum or absolute strength refers to the maximum amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce in a single maximal effort. On the other hand, the stretch-shortening cycle and explosive movements, which make use of quick eccentric and concentric muscle actions to produce power and force in a limited amount of time, are related to the time range of 0.6-0.8 seconds.

#### When the ratio of the moment arm to the resistive arm is greater than 1, you have a mechanical advantage.

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In a lever system, mechanical advantage is the ratio of the moment arm to the resistive arm. In biomechanics and physics, a lever is a simple machine that amplifies force or velocity.

#### increase force potential and strength while limiting velocity

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Due to the greater number of muscle fibers packed into a given muscle volume, a greater pennation angle can lead to increased force potential (more strength). Due to the reduced effective range over which the muscle fibers can generate force, however, it can also slow down muscle contractions.

#### Fast with less force, conditions the nervous system

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High velocity training entails performing exercises and movements at a rapid pace to condition the nervous system, improve neuromuscular coordination, and enhance the ability to execute movements with less force and greater speed. It is especially beneficial for athletes and individuals who wish to enhance their speed, agility, and overall athletic performance.

#### The inclination of a force to rotate an object about a given fulcrum.

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Torque denotes the degree to which a force tends to rotate an object about a given fulcrum or pivot point. It is a rotational force that causes an object to rotate or turn about an axis. Torque is essential to comprehending the mechanics of movement and the principles underlying the human body's lever systems.

#### Sustaining a given level of intensity for an extended period of time

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Dynamic activities, such as aerobic exercises and endurance training, that involve continuous and rhythmic muscle contractions are linked to maintaining movement at a given intensity for a prolonged period of time. These exercises are crucial for increasing stamina and overall fitness because they improve both muscular and cardiovascular endurance.

#### Right and Left

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The sagittal plane, which divides the body into the left and right halves, is where movements and structures are described using the directional terms "left" and "right." These terms are crucial for communicating specific actions and positions in relation to the sagittal axis of the body in anatomical and movement terminology.

#### Acts as a "decelerator" and opposes the prime mover.

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As a "decelerator" during movements, the antagonist muscle works against the prime mover to slow down motion and preserve joint stability. For coordinated and secure movement in a variety of physical activities, this antagonistic relationship is crucial.

#### optimal number of crossing bridges exist

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The length-tension relationship is an essential concept in muscle physiology, referring to the optimal length at which a muscle can generate the most force. It is necessary for the efficiency and performance of muscle contractions.

#### As velocity rises, force capability falls.

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The idea of muscle contraction velocity and how it affects force production is related to the adage "as velocity increases, force capability decreases." The speed at which a muscle shortens or lengthens during a contraction is referred to as muscle contraction velocity.