ServSafe Foodborne Microorganisms & Allergens Test

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Which of the following is NOT a common characteristic of potentially hazardous foods?

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Foods that are potentially hazardous do not typically have a low water activity, since low water activity limits the ability of microbes to grow on the food.

Which of the following events is a key factor in the rapid growth of microorganisms?

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Time and temperature control is a key factor in the rapid growth of microorganisms. While personal hygiene and the humidity of a kitchen can play a role in the presence of bacteria, as well as a bacteria’s ability to grow, the factors of time and temperature are directly responsible for the growth rate of bacteria.

Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold are all causes of foodborne illnesses. What is the other cause of foodborne illnesses?

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Contamination by chemicals or other toxins is the final source of foodborne illnesses after bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration lists chemical contaminants, metals, natural toxins, and pesticides as the primary causes of non-pathogenic foodborne illnesses.Natural toxins are generally a byproduct of food processing techniques, and do not include toxins associated with inherently poisonous foods, such as some species of mushrooms or fish. Allergies are immunological conditions that are triggered by allergens, but allergic reactions are not considered a foodborne illness.

Which of the following is a common food mold?

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Cladosporium is a common food mold. This mold is often associated with poultry products and can cause food borne illness.

Salmonella poisoning is most often associated with the following source:

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Salmonella poisoning is most often associated with under-cooked eggs and poultry products. While raw milk can be a source of salmonella poisoning, pasteurized milk is not a source within the expiration date.

Giardia lamblia is a type of:

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Giardia lamblia is a type of parasite. Giardia lamblia (intestinalis) is a single celled animal, i.e., a protozoa, that moves with the aid of five flagella. In Europe, it is sometimes referred to as Lamblia intestinalis.

The bacteria Vibrio vulnificus is commonly associated with which of the following foods?

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Vibrio vulnificus is commonly associated with shellfish. In particular, this type of bacteria is often associated with eating under-cooked or raw shellfish. With symptoms including diarrhea, stomach pain, and vomiting, this illness can last up to eight days.

Of the bacteria listed, which one is commonly linked to cooked rice?

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Bacillus cereus is the bacteria most commonly linked to cooked rice.

Wheezing, hives, and puffy eyes are symptoms of:

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Wheezing, hives, and puffy eyes are symptoms that someone in the restaurant is having an allergic reaction. If you encounter this problem, you should contact emergency medical technicians or paramedics immediately.

The greatest threat of Salmonella contamination can be traced to which of the following foods:

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All of the above listed foods are potential sources of salmonella poisoning. Since all of the foods are poultry derived, it is fair to expect that they are potential sources of salmonella poisoning.

Of the following listed food pathogens, which one is most often associated with the consumption of under-cooked or raw seafood?

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Vibrio vulnificus is the pathogen most commonly associated with food borne illness when compared to the above list. Symptoms include diarrhea, stomach pain, and vomiting lasting two to eight days. May result in a blood infection or death to those with a weak immune system.

The “Danger Zone” for biological growth in food is defined as:

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The Danger Zone for biological food contamination is defined as the temperature range of 41°F to 135°F. Within this temperature zone, harmful bacteria, viruses, and pathogens can grow within a food and reproduce. For this reason, it is important to limit the amount of time you keep a food in this range to a minimum.

Which of the following is an example of a chemical contaminant?

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Bleach is an example of a chemical contaminant. Listeria is a biological hazard, while chicken bones and hair are considered physical hazards.

The greatest threat of Norovirus contamination can be traced to which of the following foods?

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Norovirus contamination is most often associated with oysters. While oysters are the answer in this question, norovirus can be traced to many types of food including fruit and vegetables.

What method do bacteria use to reproduce?

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Bacteria reproduce asexually by dividing in two. This manner produces two single-celled organisms with the same genetic content.

Of the following listed hazards, which one is considered a biological hazard?

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Sneezing on the food is considered a biological hazard. Since the nose contains microbes and other biological hazards, the act of sneezing can be traced to a biological hazard.

Yersiniosis is a foodborne pathogen typically associated with which of the following foods?

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Yersiniosis is a food borne pathogen typically associated with milk. This pathogen has an incubation time of one to three days, and can cause enterocolitis and appendicitis.

Anisakis food poisoning is commonly associated with which of the following foods?

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Anisakis food poisoning is most often associated with wild salmon. Anisakis food poisoning is often associated with fresh water fish, making the thorough cooking of fresh water fish an important part of food safety.

Foodborne illnesses can be caused by:

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Foodborne illnesses can be caused by manufacturing mistakes, poor hygiene, and exposure to person with contagious illnesses. While you can control the work of a sick employee by keeping them at home, as well as control hand washing, manufacturing mistakes is a factor out of your hands. To avoid this problem, make sure to take care when receiving goods into the restaurant.

Foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or above are considered:

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Potentially hazardous foods are foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or above. This critical value of water activity indicates that a food is susceptible to food borne pathogens. Therefore, any food above this limit should be given special care in a restaurant environment. Special care includes refrigeration, limiting the amount of time in the Danger Zone, and marking these foods with the date of entry into the restaurant.

Aflatoxins are typically associated with which of the following foods?

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Aflatoxins are typically associated with peanuts. Under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, these fungi grow on certain foods and feeds, resulting in the production of aflatoxins.

A food borne intoxication occurs when:

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A food borne intoxication occurs when toxins produced by pathogens enter the body. Sometimes, the bacteria is not a problem itself; it is the chemical toxins produced by the bacteria that are harmful to humans. For this reason, the term intoxication is just as important to remember as Infection.

The two categories of microbial induced food borne illness can be described through the following two terms:

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Infection and Intoxication are the two categories of microbial induced food borne illness. Intoxication refers to the chemical byproducts produced by microorganisms which can get you sick, while infection refers to the penetration of microorganisms into the body through the digestive tract.

Which of the following is NOT a potentially hazardous food?

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Sea salt is not a potentially hazardous food. Since tomatoes, grouper, and veal have specific perishable requirements as well as other dangers, the only possible answer to this question is sea salt. With a very low water activity, sea salt is not considered a potentially hazardous food.

The pathogen most associated with undercooked beef, especially hamburger, is:

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E coli. is the pathogen most often associated with undercooked beef. Of particular concern is E. coli 0157:H7, a powerful strain of E. coli which is among several strains of E. coli with negative consequences for many specific groups. To avoid E. coli from becoming problematic within your restaurant, make sure to avoid cross contamination and cook beef to a well done temperature.

When a food product comes into contact with something that contains toxic chemicals:

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When a food product comes into contact with a toxic chemical, a chemical hazard occurs. To avoid this from happening, make sure that no toxic chemical is present when preparing food in the kitchen.

The presence of microorganisms is a form of:

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Microorganisms are a form of biological hazard. Since microorganisms are of a biological nature, they fit into the category of biological hazards.

Of the following listed foods, which one is most likely to cause a food borne illness?

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Cooked rice is the food listed that is most likely to cause a food borne illness. While dry rice is not likely to cause a problem related to food safety, once the rice is cooked, spores can propagate in the cooked rice, making the food a potential food safety risk.

Foods that are left in the danger zone for more than four hours are most often associated with which type of food borne illness?

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Clostridium perfringens is the type of bacteria most of associated with foods that have been left in the danger zone for more than four hours. It is often referred to as the “cafeteria germ” since many outbreaks are associated with foods sitting in food steamers for more than four hours. To reduce the chance of this bacteria from becoming a problem, make sure to limit the amount of time a food spends in the danger zone.

A food borne infection occurs when:

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A food borne infection occurs when bacteria enters the blood stream. As the bacteria makes its way through the digestive system, harmful microbes can break through the wall of the digestive tract and become a menace to the health of consumers.

Norwalk virus is typically associated with which of the following transmission vectors?

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All of the above listed transmission vectors are typically associated with the Norwalk virus. While it is difficult to control the presence of this virus presence in water and oysters, it is certainly easy to contain the spread of this virus from person to person. Make sure to keep all sick workers at home and to have working employees wash their hands and remain within an acceptable code of personal hygiene.

Which of the following is a chemical contaminant?

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Detergent is considered a chemical contaminant. While detergent is often used in dishwashers and at the pot washing station, when it comes to consuming food, having a chemical detergent present in the food is certainly an example of a chemical hazard. Glycerol, also known as glycerine or propanetriol, is a non-toxic artificial sweetener, so it is not a contaminant. Unwashed vegetables may have residual pesticides on them, but they are more likely to harbor biological contaminants such as disease.

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) is a sign of what food borne illness?

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Jaundice is a sign of Hepatitis A, which can cause damage to the liver. Cold cuts and sandwiches, raw vegetables and salads, raw or under-cooked shellfish, and iced drinks are commonly implicated in outbreaks.

Which of the following is an example of a physical contaminant?

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Chicken bones are an example of a physical contaminant. To reduce the incidence of this physical hazard from affecting your food, make sure to thoroughly clean the chicken when cutting for use.

Tetrodotoxin is a toxin associated with which of the following foods:

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Tetrodotoxin is a toxin naturally found in many puffer fish species. If the puffer fish is not cleaned and served properly, it is very likely to be toxic. For this reason, it is never recommended that you attempt to serve this fish in your restaurant unless you have been properly trained on how to clean and serve it.

Which of the following is an example of a physical hazard found in food?

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Chicken bones are a source of physical hazards found in food. The remaining answers are examples of chemical and biological hazards.

The food pathogen Clostridium botulinum is often associated with which of the following foods?

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Clostridium botulinum is often associated with canned foods, smoked fish, and salted fish. These bacteria thrives in environments where the level of available oxygen is quite low. To avoid these bacteria, make sure to only use properly canned foods and smoked or salted fish that comes from a reputable dealer.

What is the level of water activity required for microorganisms to grow?

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The level of water activity required for microbial growth is 0.85. Any level higher than this is considered an environment prone to bacterial growth. For this reason, it is important to treat all foods with water activities above this value as a potentially hazardous food.Water activity (aw) is a measurement of the moisture content of a food, expressed as a ratio of the vapor pressure in the food item in a given condition vs. the vapor pressure of distilled water in the same condition. The amount of unbound H2O molecules present in a food generally correlates directly to the likelihood of microbial growth on the food, including yeasts, molds, and bacteria.

The greatest threat of Salmonella contamination can be traced to which of the following foods?

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Salmonella contamination is most often linked to poultry products. Symptoms of Salmonella poisoning include stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea, fever, and headache. Symptoms can persist for up to seven days.

Which of the following items would most likely cause a food to become unsafe?

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Earrings are the items that would most likely cause a food to become unsafe. While the listed shirt, ha, and shoes do not pose risks to the food itself, an earring could easily fall into the food, becoming a physical hazard.

Foods that have a pH of 4.6 or above are considered:

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Potentially hazardous foods are foods with a pH of 4.6 or above. Foods below this pH are not considered a hazard since the pH is too low for any food pathogen to survive. Examples include soda and vinegar.

A parasite is best defined as:

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A parasite is best defined as an animal which requires another animal for growth. Parasites require hosts to grow and live, so they are of particular concern when it comes to the food chain.

The three categories of food contaminants are best described as:

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The three categories of food contaminants are Chemical, Biological, and Physical Hazards. All hazards found within a restaurant environment can be placed into these three categories so it is important to think of all three categories when making food safety decisions.

What pathogen is the greatest risk found in raw chicken?

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Salmonella is the greatest risk found in raw chicken. Salmonella is a bacteria associated with poultry and egg products causing nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, chills, and prostration. To prevent this pathogen from becoming a risk in your restaurant, cook the chicken thoroughly, avoid cross-contamination, and use sanitary practices.

Which of the following is an example of a biological contaminant?

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Norovirus in shellfish is an example of a biological contaminant. Since a virus is a biological entity, it is a form of biological contaminant.

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy is more commonly known as:

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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopahty is more commonly known as Mad Cow Disease. A protein based food pathogen, this debilitating disease is caused by a deformed protein within a cow’s central nervous system. Unfortunately, no amount of cooking will degrade this protein, so there is no way to protect restaurant customers from contracting Mad Cow Disease.

Listeria monocytogenes is of particular concern because:

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Listeria monocytongenes is of particular concern because these bacteria can grow slowly in refrigerators. For this reason, it is important to use foods quickly in your restaurant and not let them sit for excessive amounts of time.

The greatest threat of E. coli contamination can be traced to which of the following foods?

Correct! Wrong!

The greatest threat of E. coli contamination can be traced to ground beef. Beef and beef products are the major cause of E. coli related illness, with ground beef being of particular concern. To avoid this illness, make sure to cook the meat to a temperature of 165°F.

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