Foods that have a pH of 4.6 or above are considered:
Potentially hazardous foods are foods with a pH of 4.6 or above. Foods below this pH are not considered a hazard since the pH is too low for any food pathogen to survive. Examples include soda and vinegar.
The two categories of microbial induced food borne illness can be described through the following two terms:
Infection and Intoxication are the two categories of microbial induced food borne illness. Intoxication refers to the chemical byproducts produced by microorganisms which can get you sick, while infection refers to the penetration of microorganisms into the body through the digestive tract.
Of the following listed food pathogens, which one is most often associated with the consumption of under-cooked or raw seafood?
Vibrio vulnificus is the pathogen most commonly associated with food borne illness when compared to the above list. Symptoms include diarrhea, stomach pain, and vomiting lasting two to eight days. May result in a blood infection or death to those with a weak immune system.
The presence of microorganisms is a form of:
Microorganisms are a form of biological hazard. Since microorganisms are of a biological nature, they fit into the category of biological hazards.
Foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or above are considered:
Potentially hazardous foods are foods that have a water activity of 0.85 or above. This critical value of water activity indicates that a food is susceptible to food borne pathogens. Therefore, any food above this limit should be given special care in a restaurant environment. Special care includes refrigeration, limiting the amount of time in the Danger Zone, and marking these foods with the date of entry into the restaurant.
Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold are all causes of foodborne illnesses. What is the other cause of foodborne illnesses?
Contamination by chemicals or other toxins is the final source of foodborne illnesses after bacteria, viruses, parasites, and mold. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration lists chemical contaminants, metals, natural toxins, and pesticides as the primary causes of non-pathogenic foodborne illnesses.Natural toxins are generally a byproduct of food processing techniques, and do not include toxins associated with inherently poisonous foods, such as some species of mushrooms or fish. Allergies are immunological conditions that are triggered by allergens, but allergic reactions are not considered a foodborne illness.
Salmonella poisoning is most often associated with the following source:
Salmonella poisoning is most often associated with under-cooked eggs and poultry products. While raw milk can be a source of salmonella poisoning, pasteurized milk is not a source within the expiration date.
The “Danger Zone” for biological growth in food is defined as:
The Danger Zone for biological food contamination is defined as the temperature range of 41°F to 135°F. Within this temperature zone, harmful bacteria, viruses, and pathogens can grow within a food and reproduce. For this reason, it is important to limit the amount of time you keep a food in this range to a minimum.
The pathogen most associated with undercooked beef, especially hamburger, is:
E coli. is the pathogen most often associated with undercooked beef. Of particular concern is E. coli 0157:H7, a powerful strain of E. coli which is among several strains of E. coli with negative consequences for many specific groups. To avoid E. coli from becoming problematic within your restaurant, make sure to avoid cross contamination and cook beef to a well done temperature.
What pathogen is the greatest risk found in raw chicken?
Salmonella is the greatest risk found in raw chicken. Salmonella is a bacteria associated with poultry and egg products causing nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, headache, chills, and prostration. To prevent this pathogen from becoming a risk in your restaurant, cook the chicken thoroughly, avoid cross-contamination, and use sanitary practices.
Which of the following is a chemical contaminant?
Detergent is considered a chemical contaminant. While detergent is often used in dishwashers and at the pot washing station, when it comes to consuming food, having a chemical detergent present in the food is certainly an example of a chemical hazard. Glycerol, also known as glycerine or propanetriol, is a non-toxic artificial sweetener, so it is not a contaminant. Unwashed vegetables may have residual pesticides on them, but they are more likely to harbor biological contaminants such as disease.
Which of the following is an example of a physical hazard found in food?
Chicken bones are a source of physical hazards found in food. The remaining answers are examples of chemical and biological hazards.
Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes) is a sign of what food borne illness?
Jaundice is a sign of Hepatitis A, which can cause damage to the liver. Cold cuts and sandwiches, raw vegetables and salads, raw or under-cooked shellfish, and iced drinks are commonly implicated in outbreaks.
The three categories of food contaminants are best described as:
The three categories of food contaminants are Chemical, Biological, and Physical Hazards. All hazards found within a restaurant environment can be placed into these three categories so it is important to think of all three categories when making food safety decisions.
Of the bacteria listed, which one is commonly linked to cooked rice?
Bacillus cereus is the bacteria most commonly linked to cooked rice.
Foods that are left in the danger zone for more than four hours are most often associated with which type of food borne illness?
Clostridium perfringens is the type of bacteria most of associated with foods that have been left in the danger zone for more than four hours. It is often referred to as the “cafeteria germ” since many outbreaks are associated with foods sitting in food steamers for more than four hours. To reduce the chance of this bacteria from becoming a problem, make sure to limit the amount of time a food spends in the danger zone.