PTCB Practice Test 5

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What factor will influence the rate of a reaction if the concentration of reactant M is half in a reaction that is third order in M?

Correct! Wrong!

In a reaction of third order kinetics, the concentration of reactant M is half:
dx/dt = k (a-x) (b-x) (c-x)
= k (a-x)3 where a=b=c
= k (M)3
now M = M/2
= k (M/2)3
= 1 /8 k (M)3

Which of the following classification works to alter the levels of chemical known as neurotransmitters in the brain?

Correct! Wrong!

Antidepressant agents help increase the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. These agents may take 4 to 6 weeks to become effective. Antianxiety binds benzodiazepine receptors leading to CNS depression; Antiepileptic prevents abnormal impulses in the CNS by inhibiting one or more ions; Sedative are used to bring about a calming effect.

If a hazardous substance comes in contact with skin, it must be washed immediately with soap and water for at least?

Correct! Wrong!

Skin must be washed for at least 5 minutes. If a substance comes in contact with eyes, they should be rinsed for 15 minutes.

This Act requires states to establish drug use review programs?

Correct! Wrong!

OBRA 90 consist of three components on which drug use review is screening for potential drug therapy problems before the prescription is filled. OBRA 87 established extensive revisions of Medicare and Medicaid Conditions of Participation regarding long term care facilities. Prescription Drug Marketing Act prohibits the reimportation of a drug illegally, and prevent counterfeit drugs. Poison Prevention Packaging Act requires all medication to be placed in childproof containers.

If the initial drug concentration is 500 mg/cc and the final concentration is 50 mg/cc, what is the rate of constant after 90 minutes? (Kinetics of First Order)

Correct! Wrong!

0.025 min-1
For the first order kinetic,
K = 2.303/t x log Co/C
= 2.303/90 x log 500/50
= 2.303/90 x log 10
= 0.025 min-1

Which of the following is a medication error deficit in knowledge?

Correct! Wrong!

Employee may not have been given the information is an example of a knowledge type deficit. Medication error sources may include a deficit in one of two area which are knowledge and performance.

Which of the following is a strategy to prevent patient harm that involves identifying the most up to date list of all medications a patient is currently taking?

Correct! Wrong!

Medication reconciliation needs to be performed in all pharmacy settings to ensure that the patient is receiving the proper medication at all points, this way errors can be identified promptly . Automated dispensing system store medications and supplies to be accessed by nurses; Computerized physician order entry is used in institution by physicians to enter medication orders; Risk evaluation and mitigation is used when risks are significant enough to require additional product labeling.

To make a 250cc 1 percent boric acid solution isotonic with eye tears, how many grams of sodium chloride are needed?

Correct! Wrong!

The freezing point of blood serum is 0.520 C, and all solutions with this freezing point are isotonic with blood serum. The freezing point of 0.9 percent sodium chloride is the same as that of blood serum.

Which of the following medication is not used to treat glaucoma?

Correct! Wrong!

Ciprofloxacin is used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis. Latanoprost, Timolol, and Betaxolol are used to treat glaucoma used to reduce intraocular pressure.

Calculate the flow rate in gtt/min for a 3 L bag of 0.9% sodium using a drop factor of 20 gtt/ml, infused over 24 hours?

Correct! Wrong!

using the formula Total volume multiple by drip factor divided by time in minutes. 3000ml x 20 = 60,000 divided by 1440 (24 x 60) = 41.6 or 42 gtt/min

What is the status of renal function in a patient with a total body clearance of 2100cc/hr and a hepatic clearance of 300cc/hr?

Correct! Wrong!

Creatinine clearance can be used to determine the severity of renal function impairment.
ClH + ClR = ClT
where,
ClT = Clearance of the entire body
Hepatic clearance = ClH
Renal clearance = ClR
300 + ClR = 2100
1800 ml/hr ClR
30 milliliters per minute
The typical creatinine clearance ranges from 80 to 120 milliliters per minute. The patient's creatinine clearance is 30 ml/min, which is considered significantly compromised.

Which reference material is a compilation of medication package inserts?

Correct! Wrong!

Physician Desk Reference contains information from package inserts. Drug Facts and Comparison contains monographs about individual drugs. Handbook on Injectable Drugs contains information on stability and compatibility of injectable drugs. American Drug Index contains more than 20,000 entries on drugs and drug products.

Which of the following values is the "mode" or "median"?
120, 135, 140, 118, 175, 105, 115, 190

Correct! Wrong!

When the number of values in an experiment is even, the average of the middle values should be taken into account. To find the median or mode of experiment data, organize it in ascending or descending order first.
In the case at hand,
105, 115, 118, 120, 135, 140, 175, 190
= (120 + 135)/2 = 127.50

According to the Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Categories, which of the following categories describes an error occurred that may have contributed to or resulted in temporary harm to patient and patient required intervention?

Correct! Wrong!

Category E results in temporary harm and requires intervention. Intervention may include change is therapy or active medical/surgical treatment. Category A – Circumstance have the potential to cause an error; Category C – error reached the patient but did not cause harm; Category D – error reached the patient, did not cause harm, but needed monitoring or intervention.

A 500ml solution containing 30% of drug has 100ml of solution added. What is the final percentage strength?

Correct! Wrong!

Using the method initial strength(IS) x initial volume (IV) = Final strength (FS) x Final volume (FV) --------Change 30% to a decimal - 0.3 X 500 = (x) X 600ml = 0.25 (Change decimal to a percent by multiplying by 100) 25%

Which of the following medication is not used to treat glaucoma?

Correct! Wrong!

H2 receptors uses the stem of -tidine, (famidine). H1 receptors uses -tadine (loratadine); Bronchodilators uses -terol (albuterol); Beta antagonist uses -olol (betaxolol)

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