PTCB Pharmacology #1
Integrase inhibitors are used to treat which of the following conditions?
Integrase inhibitors are drugs that are used to treat HIV/AIDS.
Integrase is a viral enzyme that inserts viral genetic information into the target cell of the host.
Raltegravir, dolutegravir, and elvitegravir are examples.
Note that all integrase inhibitors end in the suffix -gravir.
Statins act by inhibiting which of these enzymes' effects?
Statins, such as simvastatin, atorvastatin, and lovastatin, are used to treat hypercholesterolemia, or high blood cholesterol.
HMG-CoA reductase, a major enzyme in the mevalonate route of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, is inhibited by statins
A H2 receptor antagonist is which of the following drugs?
H2 receptor antagonists include drugs like ranitidine.
Dyspepsia, increased stomach acid production, and gastroesophageal reflux disease are all treated with H2 receptor antagonists (GERD).
H2 antagonists are distinguished by the suffix -tidine at the end of their names. Cimetidine and famotidine are two further examples.
Proton-pump inhibitors are used to lower body levels of what?
PPIs are used to treat conditions characterized by excessive stomach acid production.
Dyspepsia (indigestion), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome are all examples of this.
Omeprazole, pantoprazole, esomeprazole, and lansoprazole are examples.
The suffix -prazole is common to all proton-pump inhibitors.
Which of the vitamins listed below is water soluble?
Because water soluble vitamins are quickly removed from the body, they must be ingested on a regular basis to provide a sufficient and consistent supply. The vitamins B and C are water soluble.
A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble vitamins. They are easily kept in the body because they are fat soluble. As a result of these biological stockpiles, fat soluble vitamins do not require as frequent consumption as water soluble vitamins.
Which of the following medications is categorized as an antipyretic?
Antipyretics are medications that help to lower fever.
Aspirin is therefore an antipyretic medication.
Of course, aspirin has other benefits, such as antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory properties, making it a useful NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug).
Both warfarin and heparin are anticoagulants, while morphine is an opioid analgesic used to relieve moderate to severe pain.
A beta-lactam ring can be found in which of these drugs?
The beta-lactam ring structure is found in both penicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin) and cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefpodoxime, etc.). It is a critical and required structure for these medications to exhibit their antibacterial therapeutic effects. These medications are inefficient against bacterial infections because they lack the beta-lactam ring structure.
The beta-lactam ring is a four-membered ring that contributes to antibacterial activity.
Bacteria can create beta-lactamase, an enzyme that attempts to break down this ring structure. More bacteria can proliferate if beta-lactam rings are eliminated. One of the variables that contributes to the rise in antibiotic resistance in these medications is this.
Which of these medications is a rapid-acting insulin?
Insulin aspart, lispro, and glulisine are examples of rapid-acting insulins (peak time – 1 hour).
Remember the mnemonic "with rapid-acting insulins, there is no LAG" (Lispro / Aspart / Glulisine).
Long-acting insulins include insulin detemir and insulin glargine.
Intermediate-acting insulin is isophane insulin.
Which of these medications is used to treat infections of the urinary tract?
Trimethoprim is used to treat infections in the urinary system (UTIs).
It works by preventing bacteria from producing folate.
Trimethoprim is frequently combined with another antibiotic, sulfamethoxazole, to make the pharmaceutical Co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat urinary tract infections.
Regarding the other options:
Bipolar disorder is treated with lithium.
Abciximab is an antiplatelet medication that prevents blood clots.
Methotrexate is a disease-modifying antirheumatic medication (DMARD) that is used to treat cancer and inhibit the immune system in inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. The acronym DMARD stands for Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug.
Which of the following conditions is treated with H1 antagonists like loratadine?
At the H1 receptor, histamine antagonists reduce allergy symptoms as itching, hives, and nasal congestion.
Cetirizine, loratadine, fexofenadine, chlorpheniramine are other examples.
H1 antagonists are not to be confused with H2 antagonists.
Unlike H1 antagonists, H2 antagonists are used to treat indigestion (dyspepsia) and GERD, which are caused by excessive gastric acid production. H2 antagonists include drugs like cimetidine.
Which of these controlled drug regimes does tramadol belong to?
Tramadol is a prohibited substance classified as Schedule IV.
Drugs classified as Schedule IV have a "minimal potential for abuse and a low danger of dependence."
Xanax, Soma, Valium, Ativan, and Ambien are examples of Schedule IV pharmaceuticals.