# FREE Master of Pharmacy: Research and Biostatistics Questions and Answers

#### What does "External Validity" refer to in a study?

External Validity concerns the extent to which the findings of a study can be generalized beyond the specific conditions and participants of the study to a larger population or real-world scenarios. It assesses whether the study's results can be applied to different contexts and situations. Therefore, "The generalizability of findings" accurately represents what "External Validity" refers to in a study.

#### Which model's outcome is dependent on probability and chance?

A probabilistic model's outcome is dependent on probability and chance, meaning that the results are influenced by uncertain factors and the likelihood of different outcomes. This model acknowledges that certain events or conditions may occur with varying probabilities, introducing an element of randomness into the predictions or outcomes. Therefore, "Probabilistic Model" is the correct answer as it accurately characterizes the nature of outcomes determined by probability and chance.

#### How is the truth often avoided?

Avoiding the truth can occur due to various reasons, including malicious intentions, self-gain, or sparing someone's feelings.

#### How is the truth sought?

The truth is sought through a combination of observation and logical inferences. Observation involves direct perception and gathering of information from the surrounding environment, while logical inferences involve making conclusions based on existing knowledge and evidence. Both methods are often used in tandem to explore and understand various aspects of reality, making "Both A & B" the correct answer.

#### Which method uses observations to make generalizations?

Inductive reasoning uses observations to make generalizations by identifying patterns or trends in collected data and then forming broader conclusions based on these patterns. It involves moving from specific instances to broader generalizations, making it the appropriate method for drawing conclusions from observations. Therefore, "Inductive reasoning" is the correct answer as it aligns with the description provided.

#### What term refers to ALL patients with the disease who have the same characteristics as defined by the inc/exc criteria?

The term "Population" refers to the entirety of patients with the disease who share the specific characteristics defined by the inclusion and exclusion criteria of a study. This encompasses all potential individuals who could be part of the research, and the findings from the sample are extrapolated to make broader inferences about this larger group. Therefore, "Population" is the correct answer as it accurately defines the term provided.

#### What does "Internal Validity" assess in a study?

Internal Validity pertains to the degree to which a study's design and execution support the claim of a causal relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. It ensures that the observed effects are indeed due to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than other confounding factors. Thus, "The extent of support for causal inference" is the correct answer as it accurately describes what internal validity assesses in a study.

#### What concept is based on probability and does not always ensure that the extrapolation of results is correct?

The concept of "Inference" involves drawing conclusions based on available evidence, which may be probabilistic and not always guarantee accurate extrapolation of results. Inference involves making educated assumptions and generalizations, often relying on statistical analysis, but it doesn't guarantee certainty. Therefore, "Inference" is the correct answer as it aligns with the provided explanation.

#### What term refers to whether a variable or methodology measures what it claims to measure?

Validity refers to the extent to which a variable or methodology accurately measures what it is intended to measure. It assesses whether the results obtained are a true reflection of the concept being studied. Therefore, "Validity" is the correct answer as it addresses the alignment between the measurement and the intended meaning.

#### What are the types of Logical inferences?

Logical inferences include both deductive reasoning (drawing specific conclusions from general principles) and inductive reasoning (generalizing from specific observations).

#### What type of model describes physical laws of nature as not variable and not dependent on probability?

A deterministic model describes physical laws of nature as not variable and not dependent on probability, meaning that their outcomes are consistent and predictable under the same conditions. This type of model asserts that the same inputs will always lead to the same outputs, reflecting a cause-and-effect relationship. Therefore, "Deterministic Model" is the correct answer as it accurately represents the nature of physical laws.

#### What are factors that can cause samples to be not representative of the population?

The factors listed â€“ samples not chosen at random, inclusion/exclusion criteria isolating the sample, and research protocol creating an artificial environment â€“ can collectively lead to samples that are not truly representative of the broader population. These factors can introduce bias and limit the generalizability of study findings. Therefore, "All of the above" is the correct answer as it encompasses all the mentioned factors that can contribute to non-representative samples.

#### What term refers to patients with the disease who are actually in the study?

The term "Sample" refers to the subset of patients with the disease who are actually included in a study. It represents the group of individuals from the larger population who are selected to participate in the research, and the findings from this sample are then used to make inferences about the broader population. Therefore, "Sample" is the correct answer as it accurately defines the term provided.

#### What process involves taking results obtained from a sample and extrapolating them to the population?

Statistical inference involves taking results obtained from a sample and using them to make broader conclusions or predictions about the entire population from which the sample was drawn. It utilizes statistical techniques to estimate population parameters and make inferences about characteristics based on the observed sample data. Therefore, "Statistical Inference" is the correct answer as it accurately captures the process described.

#### What method uses a theory to predict an observation?

Deductive reasoning involves using a theory or established principles to predict specific observations or outcomes. This method relies on established rules to draw conclusions based on the given information, making it a structured and logical approach to reasoning.

#### What is the purpose of a process designed to discover the truth?

The purpose of a process designed to discover the truth is research. Research involves systematic investigation, data collection, analysis, and interpretation to uncover new knowledge, facts, or insights related to a specific topic. It aims to explore, validate, or refute existing theories or hypotheses, ultimately contributing to a deeper understanding of the truth. Therefore, "research" is the correct answer as it encompasses the comprehensive approach of uncovering truths through organized and methodical inquiry.