# FREE Bachelor of Arts in Psychology: Methodical & Stats Analysis Questions and Answers

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#### Regarding the "study for use with questions 5-19" provided, what is the identified factor that is manipulated or controlled by the researchers? (Independent variable)

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The independent variable is the variable that the researcher manipulates or controls. In this study, the independent variable is "Digit recitation" because the participants are exposed to different conditions of reciting digits.

#### What do you call measures of bodily responses, such as blood pressure or heart rate, used to determine changes in psychological state?

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Physiological measures involve assessing bodily responses to understand changes in psychological states or reactions.

#### What particular flaw or limitation is associated with the research design utilized in this study, which might result in a certain risk or potential outcome?

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Non-equivalent samples refer to situations where the groups are not equivalent due to individual differences among participants. In this study, there might be participant variables that are not controlled, leading to non-equivalent groups and potential confounding factors.

#### What kind of measure is used to assess how people feel?

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Affective self-report measures are used to assess individuals' emotions, feelings, or moods through self-reports, such as asking them how they feel.

#### What is the middle value (median) among the numbers 10, 28, 13, 14, 20, 35, 20, 19, 17, and 12?

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To find the median, arrange the values in ascending order and find the middle value. In this case, the middle values are 17 and 19, and the median is the average of these two numbers, which is (17 + 19) / 2 = 36 / 2 = 18.

#### Among the numbers 9, 12, 24, 13, 15, 17, 35, 14, 17, and 17, what is the central value or value that appears most frequently?

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The mode is the value that appears most frequently in the dataset. In this case, the number 17 appears three times, which is more frequent than any other value.

#### What type of measures involve the replies people give to questionnaires and interviews?

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Cognitive self-report measures focus on gathering information about what people think, their beliefs, attitudes, or opinions through questionnaires or interviews.

#### What is the average of the numbers 7, 3, 5, 6, and 4?

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To find the mean, add up all the values and then divide by the number of values. (7 + 3 + 5 + 6 + 4) / 5 = 25 / 5 = 5.

#### What term refers to the extent to which a measurement procedure accurately measures what it is intended to measure, rather than measuring something else?

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Validity is the degree to which a measurement accurately assesses the specific construct or concept it is intended to measure, ensuring that it is not influenced by other factors or unrelated variables.

#### What type of measures are used to assess how people act, for example, tracking how often they go to church, engage in specific behaviors, or participate in certain activities?

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Behavioral self-report measures involve individuals reporting their own actions, behaviors, or activities through questionnaires or interviews. This provides insights into their real-life behaviors and actions in various situations.

#### What specific category or type of research design does the described study fall under?

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A true experiment involves the manipulation of an independent variable and the random assignment of participants to different conditions. In this study, the researcher manipulates "Digit recitation" and assigns participants randomly to different groups.

#### In the context of this study, what is the measured or observed variable that is influenced or affected by the changes in the independent variable? (Dependent variable)

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The dependent variable is the variable that is measured and influenced by the independent variable. In this study, the dependent variable is "The number of correctly recalled words" because it is expected to be affected by the manipulation of "Digit recitation."

#### What type of measure is used to assess what people think about something?

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Cognitive self-report measures focus on gathering information about what people think, their beliefs, attitudes, or opinions through questionnaires or interviews. This helps researchers understand the cognitive aspects of individuals' thoughts and mental processes related to a particular topic or situation.

#### What type of measures can be used to observe and record anything a participant does, directly observing their behavior?

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Observational measures involve directly observing and recording participants' behavior, actions, or activities without relying on their self-reporting.

#### What is the field that investigates and improves the properties of measurements used in behavioral research called?

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Psychometrics is the field that deals with the development, evaluation, and improvement of psychological and behavioral measurement instruments, including tests, questionnaires, and other assessment tools.

#### If the dispersion or spread of a data set is represented by a standard deviation of 5, what is the corresponding variance?

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The variance is the square of the standard deviation. So, if the standard deviation is 5, the variance would be 5^2 = 25.