FREE Bachelor of Arts in Psychology: Intersection of Psychology and Legal System Questions and Answers

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In the past, what was the prevailing belief or perception about individuals categorized as psychopaths?

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The correct answer is: Flawed in terms of personality, inbred, and evil. In the past, individuals categorized as psychopaths were often viewed as possessing flawed personalities, being associated with inbred traits, and considered to be inherently evil. These perceptions contributed to stigmatizing and misconceptions surrounding psychopathy.

According to Daly & Wilson, why do they consider uxoricide as a byproduct?

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The correct answer is: If coercive control is to keep a partner, then killing a partner is counterproductive. Daly & Wilson consider uxoricide (the killing of one's wife) as a byproduct because it goes against the goal of coercive control, which is to maintain a partner. Killing a partner would be counterproductive as it would not achieve the aim of maintaining the relationship through controlling behavior.

For what achievement is Robert Hare best known or recognized?

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The correct answer is: Psychopathy Checklist. Robert Hare is best known for developing the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL), a widely used assessment tool for the evaluation and identification of psychopathic traits in individuals. The PCL has been instrumental in research, forensic psychology, and clinical assessments related to psychopathy.

What is the significance or interpretation of the M'Naghten Rule concerning the present legal framework concerning offenders who have mental illness?

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The correct answer is: A person with a mental illness who commits a crime but knew what they were doing at the time will serve their punishment, as guilty. The M'Naghten Rule is a legal standard that states individuals with mental illness can be held criminally responsible for their actions if they were aware of the nature and quality of their actions at the time of the offense. This rule is used to determine an individual's culpability in criminal cases involving mental health issues.

What are the three primary routes or pathways that individuals typically follow when engaging in criminal behavior?

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The correct answer is: Young Male Syndrome, Competitive Disadvantage, and Psychopathy. These three pathways are recognized as common trajectories individuals follow when involved in criminal behavior. Young Male Syndrome refers to the elevated risk of criminal activities among young males due to certain biological and sociocultural factors. Competitive Disadvantage relates to individuals turning to criminal behavior as a means of addressing perceived inequalities or disadvantages in society, and Psychopathy involves individuals exhibiting traits such as lack of empathy, impulsivity, and manipulative behavior that may lead to criminal actions.

What are the distinguishing factors or reasons that differentiate Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) from psychopathy?

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The correct answer is: ASPD focuses on criminal aspects and Psychopathy is more about personality. The distinguishing factor between Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy lies in their emphasis. ASPD is primarily concerned with criminal behaviors and law-breaking tendencies, whereas psychopathy is more centered around specific personality traits and characteristics that deviate from societal norms.

What is the proposition or idea put forth by the error management theory?

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The correct answer is: That men feel it is better to overestimate a partner's infidelity than to underestimate it. The error management theory suggests that when it comes to infidelity in a relationship, men may have a tendency to be more cautious and prone to making errors of overestimating their partner's potential unfaithfulness rather than underestimating it. This behavior is thought to be an adaptive strategy to minimize the risk of being cuckolded and to protect their reproductive interests.

What does the term "male sexual proprietariness" refer to or mean in the context of reproductive behavior or mating strategies?

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The correct answer is: The idea that men view women as having the right to take ownership over them. In the context of reproductive behavior and mating strategies, "male sexual proprietariness" refers to a belief or behavior where men consider women as possessions or objects to be controlled or owned, leading to controlling or possessive behaviors towards women. This concept is related to certain traditional gender norms and expectations, but it is not the only factor influencing mating strategies or reproductive behavior.

What does the term "inclusive fitness" mean in the context of biology or evolutionary theory?

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The correct answer is: Kin selection or likelihood that a perpetrator would not be genetically related to the victim. In the context of biology or evolutionary theory, "inclusive fitness" refers to the concept of kin selection, where individuals may prioritize the well-being or reproductive success of genetically related individuals to increase their own genetic representation in future generations. This concept helps explain certain behaviors and social dynamics observed in various species, including humans.

Could you provide an explanation or description of the concept known as "young male syndrome," dividing it into its two main components?

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The correct answer is: Young men are likely to accept risk to compete for reproductively relevant goals and more likely to compete than others. "Young male syndrome" refers to the tendency among some young males to engage in risky behaviors and competitive actions in pursuit of reproductive success. These two main components, risk-taking for reproductive goals and heightened competitiveness, are characteristic of this concept.

Which three variables are strongly associated and serve as the basis for the majority of criminal behavior?

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The correct answer is: Mating Effort, Risk Taking, and Anti-sociality. These three variables have been found to be strongly associated and form the foundation for a significant portion of criminal behavior. Mating Effort refers to behaviors related to gaining reproductive success, Risk Taking involves engaging in activities with potential negative consequences, and Anti-sociality encompasses traits and behaviors characterized by a disregard for social norms and the rights of others, all of which have been linked to criminal tendencies.

How would you define the term "taxon" in the context of biology or classification?

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The correct answer is: The hypothesis that suggests psychopaths are a distinct group or nonarbitrary class. In the context of biology or classification, a "taxon" refers to a group or category that includes organisms or entities with shared characteristics. In this case, it pertains specifically to the hypothesis proposing that psychopaths constitute a separate and identifiable group with unique traits or attributes.

What are the three concepts or factors that Kanazawa (2003) provides an explanation for?

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The correct answer is: Accounts for the majority of crimes, Sex difference, and Intelligence. In his work, Kanazawa (2003) offers explanations for these three concepts. He explores how certain factors contribute to criminal behavior, the disparities in criminal involvement between genders, and the relationship between intelligence and criminal tendencies.

In Kanazawa's mathematical analysis, what shape or pattern does the age-sex crime curve exhibit?

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The correct answer is: The difference between reproductive benefits minus costs. According to Kanazawa's mathematical analysis, the age-sex crime curve reflects the balance between the reproductive benefits individuals gain from engaging in criminal behavior and the associated costs. The curve indicates how these factors interact and influence criminal tendencies across different age and sex groups.

What does the term "frequency-dependent selection" refer to or represent in evolutionary biology?

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The correct answer is: When selection favors a gene when it is rare, and disfavors it when it becomes more common. In evolutionary biology, "frequency-dependent selection" describes a phenomenon where the fitness or advantage of a gene depends on its prevalence within a population. When a gene is rare, it may provide a selective advantage, but as it becomes more common, its advantage diminishes, leading to a balanced genetic variation in the population. This process helps maintain genetic diversity and stability within the population.

According to evolutionary psychology, how is "competitive disadvantage" defined or understood?

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The correct answer is: Those who adopted a long-term high mating effort strategy would have outcompeted those who did not. In the context of evolutionary psychology, "competitive disadvantage" refers to the idea that individuals who pursued a long-term, high mating effort strategy would have a competitive advantage over those who did not adopt this approach in the context of reproductive success. This strategy can influence the survival and propagation of certain traits in a population.

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