NYSTCE: Students with Disabilities Exam Prep #4

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Second grader Nathan engages in repetitive behaviors, avoids eye contact, and has difficulty with transitions. However, he shows no signs of cognitive deficits or delays. Which of the following disorders best describes Nathan’s symptoms?

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A child with Asperger’s syndrome shows many of the symptoms associated with autism, but he has normal to above average cognitive functioning.

Mrs. Jones has noticed that kindergartner David is very bright, but he lacks language skills and has a hard time making friends. He rarely makes eye contact and doesn’t show much emotion. She assumes that he is just shy. Which of the following might explain David’s symptoms?

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High-functioning autism may explain David’s symptoms. A child who is simply shy probably won’t exhibit language delays. The symptoms of autism range from a child who has a few language and social skills delays to one who is severely impacted. Early intervention is critical for the best outcome for both groups.

Fourth-grader Stacey was recently identified with ADHD, or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Which of the following symptoms would Stacey most likely exhibit?

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A child with ADHD would likely exhibit the inability to sit or stand still. This question assesses awareness of the basic characteristics of specific disabilities. The correct answer is D. Children with ADHD typically exhibit impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, overstimulation, and an ability to sit or stand still. A, B, and C may be associated with other disorders, but are not typically observed in children with ADHD.

Mrs. Christensen instructs her students to make “ladybug drops” or drops the size of ladybugs when using bottled glue. This instruction is an example of which strategy?

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Mrs. Christensen is using a concrete visual image to teach the skill of using glue. Most young children have seen ladybugs and can easily identify with this direction.

Most children with learning disabilities will also have difficulty with which of the following?

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Most children with a disability may also have difficulty with social relationships. Children with autism, for example, usually do not differentiate between emotions or read facial expressions and body language. A child with an auditory perceptual deficit may not understand a speaker’s meaning. Specific, direct social skills training is often very effective.

When Mr. Johnson came to pick up his son Simon from preschool, Simon was playing in the housekeeping center with the dolls. Mr. Johnson expressed discomfort over his son’s choice of toys and asked the teacher to refrain from allowing his son to play with dolls. Which of the following is the likely reason for this request?

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Mr. Johnson was likely uncomfortable with his son playing with dolls because of cultural conditioning around the roles of women and men. Mr. Johnson has been culturally conditioned to believe that women should deal with child-rearing tasks while men participate in other activities.

Patrick’s daughter was born with cerebral palsy. Although Patrick’s family feels a strong social stigma, Patrick is committed to providing his daughter with the best care possible. His ability to accept his daughter’s disability suggests which of the following, according to the Bowen theory of family systems?

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How much a family system influences an individual’s ability to think and make decisions is known as the differentiation of self. Parents who have a strong differentiation of self are usually better able to accept their child’s disability and to seek appropriate treatment, regardless of the perceptions of extended family members.

The most obvious symptom of dyslexia is reading difficulty. Which of the following may also accompany dyslexia?

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Many children with dyslexia are socially immature for their age. Autopsies on dyslexic adults have found anomalies in the left hemispheres of the brains of these patients. In addition to challenges with regard to reading and language, children with dyslexia may have visual perceptual deficits, poor fine motor skills, and immature social skills. Effective and early intervention can actually change the neuron paths in the brains of dyslexic children.

What elements are included when determining the process of a lesson plan?

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The process portion of lesson planning refers to the “how” of teaching. Will the teacher use group discussions, individual projects, independent centers, or some other means to teach the content?

When determining placement for a child with a classification of SED, which of the following factors should not be considered?

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When determining the placement of a child with SED, specialists should consider the child’s ability to function socially and perceive reality accurately, as well as the child’s maturity level and ability to care for personal needs.

First grader Camille has a difficult time working independently and often seems insecure. She enjoys extra attention from teachers and peers and seems to have acquired an attitude of “learned helplessness.” When questioned, Camille’s mother reports that she is the “baby” of the family and is loved and adored by all. Which of the following might explain Camille’s behavior?

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Camille may have learned through her position in the family to gain attention by acting helplessly. Teachers can counteract this tendency by treating each child as an individual and setting reasonable expectations for all students.

Currently, boys are identified with learning disabilities more frequently than girls, at a rate of 3:1. Researchers believe one of the reasons for this is which of the following?

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Boys appear to be more susceptible to brain damage, both before and after birth. This question assesses understanding of the causes of learning disabilities. The correct answer is A. Boys are more likely to experience brain damage during the prenatal period caused by exposure to drugs, alcohol, cigarette smoke, poor nutrition, fever, inadequate oxygen, or traumatic birth. Boys are also more likely to experience brain damage from falls and accidents during the early childhood years. Another possible reason is that boys are more likely to engage in disruptive behavior than girls, calling the teacher’s attention to possible learning disabilities.

What is the benefit of using a functional behavior assessment?

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The main benefit of a functional behavior assessment is that it provides useful information prior to writing a behavior intervention plan. This information is also helpful to parents in understanding the behavioral challenges.

What is the typical IQ range of children with learning disabilities?

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The typical IQ range for children with learning disabilities is from 90 to 95. Many children with learning disabilities are able to perform as well (or almost as well) as their peers, though, if they are given extra time or are provided with alternative methods of learning. IQ tests are only one tool in assessing a child’s cognitive ability.

Second grader Zoe has difficulty with self-help skills, such as buttoning her coat or tying her shoes. Which of the following might this indicate?

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Most children have developed the ability to button coats by age four, so a delay in these skills might indicate a developmental delay.

Kara’s preschool teacher has noticed that Kara’s expressive language skills seem delayed in comparison to her peers. She is hesitant to talk to Kara’s parents and assumes the problem will resolve itself. Which of the following should Kara’s teacher do?

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Kara’s teacher should first seek the advice of an experienced special ed teacher. One of the benefits of co-teaching or working in an inclusive team is the availability of experts to provide objective observations. Once the teacher’s suspicions are confirmed, she should share her findings with the parents in a positive, supportive manner. The teaching team, with the parents, can work together to determine the best course of action. The teacher should not assume that Kara will outgrow her difficulties without early intervention.

Conduct Disorder may co-occur with which condition?

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Conduct disorder may co-occur with ADHD. This question assesses knowledge of co-occurring conditions. A child identified with ADHD may also have CD and display disruptive or destructive tendencies in addition to those typically seen in children with ADHD.

Fourth-grade student Jamie was recently identified with dyslexia. His mother wonders if his condition was caused by something she did, or failed to do, as a parent. We now know that dyslexia is primarily caused by what?

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Dyslexia is primarily caused by a genetic predisposition to the condition. Researchers believe that dyslexia is caused primarily by a family history of the disease, and can be passed from generation to generation. Chances are, a child’s dyslexia was not caused by anything the parent did, or failed to do, but rather, by genes. However, new research demonstrates that intensive remediation programs can significantly improve children’s responses to written language.

Third grader Kylie has difficulty reading social cues in relation to communication. She may misinterpret a rhetorical question as a literal question or misunderstand metaphors or similes. She frequently dominates conversations or skips from topic to topic. These characteristics show a breakdown in which of the components of language development?

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An inability to read social cues or interpret rhetorical questions or metaphors relates to the language component of pragmatics, which is the speaker’s intent. The child may hear and understand the words, but doesn’t attach the appropriate meaning.

Which of the following describes PDDNOS?

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PDDNOS, or Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified, is a term used to describe a disorder similar to autism. Children with this disorder may have similar characteristics, such as language or social deficits.

Many parents of children with special needs express concerns over the financial, emotional, and physical strains associated with caring for these children. Which of the following responses would be most helpful?

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Although parents appreciate a listening ear, what most parents need is practical help. Offer parents information on community respite services and support groups and encourage them to utilize these services.

Lisa, a fourth-grade student, has a visual perceptual deficit. Her teacher has noticed which of the following problems in connection with this deficit?

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Reversing or inverting letters or numerals is often associated with a visual perceptual deficit. Children with visual perceptual deficits do not always process visual information accurately. Other possible symptoms include skipping lines, omitting words, poorly formed letters, or slow, laborious handwriting.

Mrs. Williams noticed that Kevin found it difficult to remember basic math facts, but he had a strong interest in natural science. She incorporated some math concepts into a project on volcanoes for Kevin. This is an example of using which approach?

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Mrs. Williams used a strengths-based approach in working with Kevin. She observed him to find his natural strengths and interests and developed curriculum around those strengths.

First grader Molly avoids tactile experiences such as painting or Play-Doh. She is a picky eater, reluctant to try new foods. She usually wears long sleeves and pants, and she insists that her mother remove the tags from her clothing. Which of the following best explains Molly’s symptoms?

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Molly’s symptoms are common among children with sensory integration disorders, which are disorders in which a child doesn’t process sensory stimulus correctly.

Where can one find the categories and definitions used to classify mental disorders?

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The categories and definitions used to classify mental disorders can be found in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association.

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