NYSTCE: Students with Disabilities Exam Prep #2
Ms. Simons uses reinforcers in her classroom to motivate and encourage students. A reinforcer is which of the following?
Reinforcers are prizes or privileges students can gain by earning points. Every student is aware of the reinforcer and is allowed to participate.
Classroom paraprofessionals can be a valuable resource for teachers. Which of the following strategies demonstrates effective ways of using a classroom aide?
Use paraprofessionals effectively by training them and providing necessary information. Don’t give the classroom aide the jobs you don’t want to do, but share in the “dirty work.” Develop trust and open communication and challenge her to grow professionally. Handle conflicts quickly and respectfully, treat her as an equal, and give her additional challenges as she gains experience.
Kindergarten teacher Mrs. Simonton knows that the principal is planning a fire drill for today. This fire drill is the first drill of the year and the first one Mrs. Simonton’s students have ever experienced. How can she prepare her students?
Mrs. Simonton can help her students prepare for the fire drill by explaining what a fire drill is. She can calmly show the children how to line up and move to the destination outdoors before the fire drill. If she approaches it as an interesting, positive thing, the students are less likely to be frightened.
On the first day of school, Mrs. Williams orients students about the classroom. Which of the following might she do to ensure a safe, comfortable classroom?
As part of orientation, Mrs. Williams will show the students where to put their things and provide instructions on lining up.
Fifth-grader Simon was often disruptive in class. He was unfocused and refused to complete his work on time. Mrs. Williams decided to try a contingency contract to motivate Simon to stay on task. Which of the following is necessary for a successful contingency contract?
A successful contingency contract should have specific goals and a timeline outlined, as well as potential consequences or rewards. Parents should be informed of the contract and the contract should be discussed with the child in private.
Mrs. Williams knows that setting the classroom tone is her responsibility and can make a big difference in her students’ behaviors. Which of the following principles is she most likely to use?
Setting clear expectations, providing adequate structure, and promoting mutual respect sets a tone for a peaceful, happy classroom. Making learning fun and inviting is also important, but promoting a party-like atmosphere is usually asking for trouble. Most children benefit from some structure.
Roberta has a mild learning disability. Which of the following placements is most appropriate for her?
A regular classroom with consultation and support from the resource specialist is usually the most appropriate placement for a child with a mild learning disability. The teacher and resource specialist work together to provide curriculum adaptations.
Sean, who has a classification of ADHD, needs frequent motor breaks to stay on task. He is embarrassed by his condition and doesn’t want the other children to know. Mrs. Williams has worked out which of the following strategies with Sean to communicate a need for a motor break?
A subtle hand signal is a good way to indicate a need for a break. Many teachers use hand signals to check in with students, as well, without alerting the other children.
Preschooler Katie has low muscle tone and has difficulty chewing her food. At snack time, she often drools or may “pocket” the food in the corners of her mouth. Which of the following strategies might help her eat food more successfully?
Providing warm-up exercises before a snack may help Katie eat more successfully.
Which of the following describes an obstacle course used by occupational therapists and special ed teachers?
An obstacle course, as used by occupational therapists and special ed teachers, is a series of motor activities designed to warm up the body and mind and reach specific objectives for motor development. Obstacle courses are often planned in conjunction with a specific theme or learning concept.
Mrs. Williams frequently uses tests that teach to assess students’ knowledge while teaching important facts. Which of the following is an example of a test that teaches?
Multiple choice questions with an answer key are an example of a test that can teach. A spelling bee or game show-type test may also provide learning, but multiple choice tests are specifically designed to clarify information and provide instruction.
Fourth-grader Isabella has a specific learning disability (SLD), but she spends her days in an integrated classroom. Mrs. Williams has discovered that she is not ready for the regular curriculum. Which of the following strategies can Mrs. Williams use to help Isabella access the curriculum?
Working with the special ed teacher to adapt the curriculum to Isabella’s level of learning will help her access the curriculum. Reviewing curriculum from a lower grade level is a good way to get ideas on making adaptations, but if Isabella is to catch up, she should be studying the same concepts as her peers.
Which of the following describes the definition of assistive technology?
Assistive technology is any device that allows a child with disabilities to succeed in the classroom. This could be an adapted toy, a software program that aids communication, or a seat or piece of gross motor equipment.
Mrs. Mueller’s classroom has large fluorescent ceiling lights. She often turns these lights off, though, and relies on natural light and table lamps she’s brought from home. What benefit does this approach provide?
Mrs. Mueller turns off the fluorescent lights because she knows some children are overstimulated by them. Relying on natural light and table lamps creates a more relaxing, home-like atmosphere that children and teachers prefer.
At the beginning of each year, Mrs. Williams develops class rules. Which of the following are principles associated with effectively writing class rules?
Children are more likely to respond to and understand class rules that they helped develop. Keep the rules clear and simple and limit them to no more than five. Make a poster and display it in a prominent place. Refer back to the class rules often.
Kindergartner Sebastian has experienced many transitions in his home life. He is easily agitated and has frequent angry outbursts. Which of the following strategies can his teacher use in the classroom to help him calm down?
Sebastian’s teacher can help him by monitoring his behavior and stepping in when he becomes agitated. A cozy corner is a box, bean bag, or other area in the room designated as a quiet place to go to calm down. Cozy corners are often stocked with small fidget toys, books, and stuffed animals. The teacher can calmly talk with Sebastian, helping him to feel safe and offering alternatives to angry outbursts.
Mr. Simmons has also noticed that many children have difficulty waiting their turn to talk during group time. These children blurt out comments or fail to listen to their friends’ comments. Mr. Simmons wants to help them learn to engage in reciprocal conversation. Which strategy might help?
Many teachers use a talking stick or other teaching device to teach children turn-taking in conversation. A talking stick is any stick, wand, or homemade tool that the children hold while they are talking. Only the person holding the talking stick may talk and when he’s finished, he passes it to the next person. The visual and physical reminder the talking stick provides is often very effective in eliminating verbal outbursts. If a child forgets simply say, “Oops, who has the talking stick right now? Thank you for waiting your turn.”
First grader Duncan has been classified with ADHD. His teacher uses music and activity in the classroom as often as possible, and also encourages the children to get up and stretch or move at least once an hour. This technique seems to help Duncan focus and is an example of using which strategy?
Motor breaks are frequent breaks to stretch and exercise and they allow Duncan to focus. Children learn best when they are taught in an active, physical learning environment. Motor breaks are especially important for children with ADHD or SID.
In Miss Anderson’s class, students go immediately to math after morning recess. Miss Anderson has noticed that many of the children are disruptive and fidgety during this time. Which of the following lesson plan strategies might help?
Building a warm-up time into the lesson plan can help children settle in for learning. A warm-up time may include a quick set of exercises, an attention-getting activity, or a story. An effective lesson plan includes activities designed to eliminate or reduce unwanted behaviors.
Before kindergarten teacher Mrs. Matthews expects children to work independently, she always shows them how to do a project or assignment by doing it herself. This is an example of which technique?
Mrs. Matthews shows children how to do a project or assignment, which is an example of modeling the process.
Once Mrs. Christensen has completed a lesson plan, she files it away for the next year. Which final step is she missing in the planning process?
A final step in the lesson planning process should include an evaluation of the lesson’s effectiveness. Making notes allows the teacher to make improvements and modifications.
Veteran teacher Mrs. Williams prepares several posters that provide simple directions with visuals. She laminates them and posts them in the classroom where they usually remain most of the year. These posters are known as what?
Posters that provide visual and written cues for basic skills are called strategy boards. Teachers use them to provide basic information, such as how to format a paragraph, how to sound out words, or how to take a test.
What is the optimum student-teacher dynamic in a developmental classroom?
In a developmental classroom, the teacher serves as a mentor and collaborator and students actively participate in learning. Teachers actively engage in learning and relationship-building with the children. They allow choice, within structure, and promote high expectations.
Bobby has a classification of ADHD. Mrs. Williams sometimes lets him learn information digitally, as opposed to other methods. What are the benefits of this approach?
Mrs. Williams allows Bobby to use the computer to learn because research has shown that children with ADHD can sometimes learn better using digital technology.
Kindergartner Cori has difficulty focusing on his work and keeping his hands to himself. He often touches or hugs the other children during group times, or sits inappropriately close to them. Which of the following strategies might help Cori sit successfully through group time?
Individual mats or a carpet divided into separate squares will delineate personal space and make it easier for Cori to sit still during group time. Many young children seem unaware of personal space or frequently touch their friends. Other options include using a cube chair or giving Cori a fidget toy to provide some sensory input during group time.
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