Kubernetes

Kubernetes
Kubernetes Certification Practice Test

Kubernetes is an open-source framework for managing containerized workloads and services that allows declarative configuration as well as automation. It has a huge and fast expanding ecosystem. Services, support, and tools for Kubernetes are widely available.

Kubernetes is a Greek word that means “helmsman” or “pilot.” The acronym K8s comes from counting the eight letters between the letters “K” and “s.” In 2014, Google made the Kubernetes project open source. Kubernetes blends Google’s 15 years of experience operating production workloads at scale with community-sourced best-of-breed ideas and practices.

Engineers at Google created and constructed Kubernetes at the beginning. Google was one of the first companies to embrace Linux container technology, and it has openly said that everything at Google is run in containers. (Google’s cloud services are built on this technology.)

Google’s internal platform, Borg, is responsible for more than 2 billion container deployments per week. The experiences acquired from creating Borg over the years were the key impact behind much of Kubernetes technology. Borg was the forerunner to Kubernetes.

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Is GKE Free?

The GKE free tier gives you $74.40 in monthly credits per billing account, which you can use on zonal and Autopilot clusters. Regardless of cluster size or topology, the price is the same per cluster, whether it’s a single-zone cluster, multi-zonal cluster, regional cluster, or Autopilot cluster.

Free-tier GKE Cluster

It’s not completely free, but with just one node, a fully managed Kubernetes cluster will likely cost $5 USD per month. This is accomplished by utilizing Google’s always free tier, which waives the administration price for one zone GKE cluster, leaving you to simply pay for your nodes. When you combine this with the use of preemptible VMs as nodes, you’ll be able to save a lot of money.
This is wonderful if you want a small K8s cluster that looks more like what you’d see in the real world.

Google Cloud Free Kubernetes

This list outlines the various Kubernetes free choices offered by different Layer 1 and Layer 2 Cloud Providers. Use it to learn Kubernetes and get your cloud native adventure started.
  • Google Cloud Platform – Gives you a $300 credit that you can spend for a year from the time you open your account. There are no limits on the number of resources or nodes that can be used to create a cluster.
  • Redhat OpenShift – Over Kubernetes, it provides a single-node PaaS. It is available in your Redhat account for a 60-day trial period.
  • Tryk8s – Provides a free sandbox for experimenting with Kubernetes.
  • Microsoft Azure – Gives you a $200 credit that you can spend for a year from the time you open your account. The Azure Kubernetes Service, on the other hand, is free for AI and machine learning workloads, making it a resource that is always free.
  • Alibaba Cloud – Gives you a $300 credit that you can spend for a year from the time you open your account. Kubernetes is included in their list of always-free resources.
  • Katacoda -The most popular way to experiment with Kubernetes. You can employ Kubernetes clusters in a variety of flavors, including a Minikube variant.
  • KubeSail – Signup using Github and get a free Kubernetes cluster for learning Kubernetes

Certified Kubernetes Security Specialist (CKS)

Kubernetes adoption is skyrocketing, making it one of the fastest-growing open source projects in history. The Cloud Native Computing Foundation is dedicated to increasing the community of Kubernetes-aware security experts, allowing the technology to continue to grow across a wide range of enterprises.

Certification is an important step in this process since it allows certified security specialists to swiftly establish their reputation and value in the job market, as well as helping businesses to hire high-quality teams to support their growth.

The Certified Kubernetes Security Specialist (CKS) program verifies that a CKS possesses the necessary skills, knowledge, and competence to secure container-based applications and Kubernetes platforms during development, deployment, and runtime. This exam requires CKA certification to take. However, users who pass the Certified Kubernetes Application Developer exam may design, build, configure, and expose Kubernetes cloud native apps. To create, manage, and troubleshoot scalable apps and tools in Kubernetes, a CKAD can describe application resources and employ basic primitives.

Certified Kubernetes Service Provider (KCSP)

The KCSP program ensures that businesses get the help they need to roll out new apps faster and more efficiently than before, while also knowing that they can rely on a reliable and vetted partner to support their production and operational needs. It is a pre-qualified layer of validated service providers run by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF) in partnership with the Linux Foundation. They have extensive expertise helping organizations successfully deploy Kubernetes.

The following are the Kubernetes certified service providers:

  • Cloudreach
  • XenonStack
  • Corehive
  • Microsoft Azure
  • Hype

Kubernetes Performance Testing

The most significant modification test practitioners will have to make in their approach to K8’s performance testing is to handle the dispersed and ephemeral nature of Kubernetes-based apps. Remember that while Kubernetes guarantees state, it is up to Kubernetes to decide where and when that state is realized. Unless otherwise specified, the location of an application pod within a Kubernetes cluster can change at any time.

While measuring performance outside of the cluster is still very simple — for example, comparing request and response times against a public URL – knowing what is going on inside the cluster is more difficult. Testers will need to rely on system monitors, logs, and distributed tracing tools to acquire a complete insight of internal performance. A popular strategy for determining performance behavior is to aggregate runtime data across nodes and containers executing in the cluster during test time.

As a result, performance testers require a working environment with basic monitoring tools like Heapster, Prometheus, Grafana, InfluxDB, and CAdvisor. These are the tools that monitor the cluster and report on current operating behavior as well as potentially harmful scenarios. Test practitioners must be able to work with these tools and the information they offer. They’re flying blind otherwise. Machine monitoring across the cluster will become the primary approach to determine the performance of systems under evaluation as more machine-to-machine activity takes place on the internet rather than work done between a human and computer.

What about Kubernetes for Dummies?

If you’re new to Kubernetes, there are several resources available to help you get started. You can get many resources available on the web to help you to your journey like Kubernetes for dummies pdf version, Kubernetes books, Kubernetes audiobooks, Kubernetes for dummies book, best book on Kubernetes preparation, Kubernetes operators pdfs, Kubernetes best practices book, Kubernetes for developers pdfs, online Kubernetes courses, and you can also get pre-requisites subjects before proceeding. Now here’s a short recap. Kubernetes is a container orchestration system that has been around for quite some time. It’s the cutting-edge platform that has forever revolutionized the way we think about information technology. A group of Google developers established the project as a mechanism to orchestrate containers, which they then open-sourced to the cloud-native computing foundation. It is now one of the most widely used systems and the de facto standard for container management.

Working with Kubernetes necessitates a new perspective on distributed computing. Understanding the fundamentals of Kubernetes is critical for anybody working with the technology today, including test personnel. For many IT departments, adopting performance testing methodologies that are compatible with Kubernetes while still meeting the organization’s goals would be a problem. It’s a task worth taking, though, given the power and cost savings Kubernetes provides to a company’s technological infrastructure.

Kubernetes Best Practices

Companies are increasingly using Kubernetes as a deployment tool in CI/CD pipelines to bridge the gap between Dev and Ops. Kubernetes, on the other hand, is a complex technology that requires adequate assistance and configuration to achieve maximum benefit. There is a possibility of unneeded complications and/or missed chances if it isn’t.

We’ve outlined five simple best practices that businesses may apply to ensure they get the most out of Kubernetes in the section below.

  • Have CI/CD Pipelines –  It is critical to enable a CI/CD pipeline for Kubernetes-based apps in order to increase the quality, security, and speed of build releases. Pipelines for Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery are critical components of the software development process. On the market today, there are various excellent tools for performing CI/CD. When selecting CI/CD technologies, make sure they work effectively with Kubernetes in order to boost your team’s productivity and release quality.
  • Cluster provisioning and load balancing – Kubernetes clusters that extend across availability zones in your cloud environment must be developed in order to build production-grade Kubernetes architecture. Other tools, such as Ansible, are commonly used to provision these. The allocation of workloads over numerous computing resources is known as load balancing. Load balancers route traffic to the server after Kubernetes has been set up. It’s worth noting that load balancers aren’t a built-in feature of a Kubernetes project. In order to perform load balancing, the project will need to be coupled with another product.
  • Access control and permissions – There are a number of security steps that can be done to guarantee that governance and compliance are maintained in your procedures. These characteristics indicate Kubernetes’ maturity. There are a few things you can do to ensure your safety: 

Use Namespaces: The use of namespaces will aid in the isolation of components and the application of security rules.

Enable Role-Based Access Control: Access can be allowed based on the various namespaces’ security requirements. Access can also be granted on a case-by-case basis, adding an added layer of security.

Enable Audit Logging: By having a clear record of modifications and permissions, enabling audit logging will assist boost visibility and make an audit easier. 

  • Resource Management – Kubernetes offers the capacity to manage resources at several abstraction levels. Users can limit consumption in individual containers by managing resources. This can be accomplished using resource requests and constraints. For CPU, memory, and ephemeral storage resources, resource demands and limits can be established. Set these requests and restrictions to avoid bottlenecks caused by a shortage of resources.
  • Use helm charts – Helm is a package manager for Kubernetes that was designed expressly for it. Helm is a chart manager that defines charts as bundles of pre-configured Kubernetes resources. Charts are very simple to make, version, share, and publish. Charts also act as a single point of authority and provide repeated application deployments.

How much is the Kubernetes Engineer Salary?

The average annual pay for a Kubernetes developer in the United States is $147,732 as of October 24, 2021.

If you need a quick salary calculator, that works out to about $71.03 per hour. This works out to $2,841 per week or $12,311 per month.

While annual salaries for Kubernetes range from $117,000 (25th percentile) to $174,500 (75th percentile) on ZipRecruiter, the majority of Kubernetes salaries currently range from $117,000 (25th percentile) to $174,500 (75th percentile), with top earners (90th percentile) making $203,500 annually across the United States. The typical compensation for a Kubernetes developer ranges widely (up to $57,500), implying that there may be numerous prospects for growth and higher income dependent on skill level, location, and years of experience.

How do docker and Kubernetes work together?

Docker makes it easier to “build” containers, whereas Kubernetes makes it possible to “manage” them in real time. To package and ship the software, use Docker. To launch and scale your app, use Kubernetes. Startups and small businesses with fewer containers can usually manage them without Kubernetes, but as businesses grow, their infrastructure needs will increase, and the number of containers will grow as well, making management more challenging. This is where Kubernetes enters the picture.

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