FREE NBCMI Medical Terminology Questions and Answers

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What is encephalitis?

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Encephalitis is a condition characterized by inflammation within the head, specifically the brain. This inflammation can be caused by viral infections, such as the herpes simplex virus or the West Nile virus. It can also be caused by bacterial infections or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of encephalitis include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma. Treatment usually involves antiviral or antibiotic medications, depending on the cause of the inflammation, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms.

What is neuropathy?

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Neuropathy is a nerve disorder. It involves damage or dysfunction of the nerves, which can lead to various symptoms such as pain, tingling, numbness, or weakness. Neuropathy can result from a variety of causes, including diabetes, infections, autoimmune diseases, and exposure to certain medications or toxins. It is important to identify the underlying cause of neuropathy for proper diagnosis and management. The term does not specifically refer to disorders of the legs, hands, or brain, although neuropathy can affect nerves throughout the body.

What is aphasia?

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The term "aphasia" refers to a condition characterized by a partial or total loss of the ability to communicate verbally or in writing. It is typically caused by damage to the language centers of the brain, often resulting from a stroke or head injury. Speech impairment, which is the correct answer, is a symptom commonly associated with aphasia. It can manifest as difficulty in finding the right words, forming coherent sentences, or pronouncing words correctly. Other symptoms of aphasia may include difficulty understanding language, reading, or writing.

What is hemiplegia?

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Hemiplegia refers to paralysis of one side of the body. It can affect either the right or left side and typically involves the arms and legs on the same side. Hemiplegia is often caused by damage to the motor cortex of the brain or the nerves connecting the brain to the affected side of the body. This condition can result from various factors such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, or certain neurological disorders. It differs from monoplegia (paralysis of one limb), paraplegia (paralysis of both lower limbs), and quadriplegia (paralysis of all four limbs).

What is pathology?

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Pathology is the study of disease. It involves the examination and analysis of bodily tissues and fluids to diagnose and understand the nature and causes of diseases. Pathologists study the changes that occur in cells, tissues, and organs as a result of disease, and they play a crucial role in identifying and treating various medical conditions. By studying the patterns and characteristics of diseases, pathologists contribute to the development of effective treatments and prevention strategies.

What is osteogenic?

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Osteogenic means originating in the bone. The term is commonly used in the context of cells or processes associated with bone formation or development. For example, osteogenic cells are those involved in the production of bone tissue. The term is derived from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "genesis," meaning origin or creation. It is used in medical and anatomical contexts to describe things related to bones or bone formation.

What is hepatitis?

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Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver. It can have various causes, including viral infections, alcohol consumption, autoimmune diseases, or exposure to certain toxins. Inflammation of the liver can lead to liver damage and may contribute to conditions such as scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) or chronic liver disease. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of hepatitis for proper treatment and management. Kidney stones are unrelated to hepatitis; they involve the formation of solid particles in the kidneys.

What is dysphagia?

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Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing. It refers to the sensation of difficulty or discomfort while swallowing food, liquids, or saliva. Dysphagia can result from various causes, including neurological conditions, muscular disorders, or structural abnormalities in the throat or esophagus. It is distinct from swelling of the vocal cords, difficulty in breathing, or impaired speech, although these conditions may be associated with or contribute to dysphagia in certain cases.

What does hemorrhage mean?

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Hemorrhage refers to the loss of blood from damaged blood vessels. It can occur internally or externally and may result from injuries, trauma, or various medical conditions. In the context of medical terminology, hemorrhage typically implies significant and often uncontrolled bleeding. This can manifest externally, such as from a wound, or internally, involving organs or tissues. Hemorrhages can vary in severity, and prompt medical attention is crucial to address the underlying cause and manage the bleeding to prevent complications. The term does not specifically refer to vomiting blood due to a stomach ulcer, blood in the stool, or blood in the urine, although those conditions may involve bleeding.

What is myalgia?

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The term "myalgia" refers to muscle pain, which is the correct answer given in the options. It is a common symptom that can be caused by various factors such as muscle strain, overuse, or injury. Myalgia can also be a symptom of certain medical conditions like viral infections or autoimmune disorders. Therefore, muscle pain is the appropriate choice among the given options as it accurately describes the meaning of myalgia.

What is tachycardia?

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Tachycardia is a rapid heart rate. It is a condition where the heart beats faster than the normal resting rate. Tachycardia can be caused by various factors, including stress, fever, anemia, heart-related issues, or other medical conditions. It is characterized by a heart rate that exceeds the typical range for a specific age group or health condition. Tachycardia stands in contrast to bradycardia, which is a slow heart rate. Irregular heart rate and heart murmur are separate cardiac conditions with distinct characteristics.

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