FREE NAVLE Exam Question and Answers
A Labrador retriever aged 7 is examined for developing foreleg lameness that has been present for about two months. Physical examination reveals a noticeable soft tissue bulge around the carpus, and palpating this region causes severe pain. Radiographs of the afflicted area show significant cortical bone loss and lysis of the distal radius. Osteoblasts with many mitotic patterns, peculiar nuclei, and very basophilic cytoplasm are visible in a needle biopsy. What type of medication is the most suitable if the owner decides to have an amputation?
The most frequent bone neoplasia in large-breed dogs, osteosarcoma of the distal radius, is the presumed diagnosis based on the patient's medical history and diagnostic results. Once cancer has been identified, the preferred course of treatment is chemotherapy with the chemical cisplatin followed by amputation of the afflicted leg, with a typical survival rate of just over a year.
A 6-year-old domestic shorthair cat with vocal discomfort is examined for acute bilateral hind limb paralysis. A grade 3/6 left-sided systolic murmur is audible during a physical examination. The patient's footpads are chilly and pallid, and there are no femoral pulses. Additionally, the gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles have painful contracture. Which of the following ailments has the highest likelihood of being diagnosed?
Cats with myocardial illness frequently develop thrombus formation within the left heart, which leads to systematic embolization at the aortic trifurcation. Reduced blood flow and endothelial damage brought on by cardiac illness help to prevent clot formation within the left heart. The distal trifurcation is frequently occluded by an embolus that has gotten loose and entered systematic circulation, leading to symptoms including strong vocalization (pain), paralysis or paresis, absent femoral pulses, and cold extremities. Exercise limitation, low-dose aspirin every three days, and treatment for the underlying heart disease make up medical care.
An eight-year-old thoroughbred mare with a one-year history of infertility and unusual aggressive behavior is being assessed. Except for an enlarged ovary felt during a rectal exam, physical exam findings are normal. The enlarged ovary seems multiloculated according to ultrasonography. Which of the following tests is the most reliable predictor of the prevailing diagnosis when elevated?
Granulosa cell tumor (GCT), the most prevalent neoplasm of the reproductive tract in mares, is the tentative diagnosis in this instance. Estrogen, testosterone, and/or inhibin serum concentrations may be raised in mares with granulosa cell tumors; however, inhibin is the hormone that is most frequently and persistently affected in mares and is therefore a more reliable diagnostic of the condition. The hormone inhibitin, which is produced by granulosa cell tumors, inhibits the anterior pituitary's ability to secrete follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This unfavorable feedback causes the contralateral ovary's follicular growth to drastically slow down, which leads to a reduction in size.
What is the most typical cause of dystocia and egg binding in caged birds?
In cage birds, egg binding and dystocia are frequently caused by a calcium deficiency or aberrant calcium metabolism. In addition to being important for healthy egg formation, calcium also helps move eggs along the reproductive tract and out of the cloaca by allowing smooth muscles to contract. In most cases, high-fat diets, including those that only include seeds, are to blame since they are deficient in key minerals, including calcium, that is essential for healthy reproduction. When they exhibit hypocalcemia and dystocia, caged birds like budgerigars and cockatiels are more likely to die, thus they must be handled with extreme caution. The typical treatments include fluid therapy, parenteral calcium, oxytocin, and surgery as a last resort.
A 4-year-old male German shepherd is examined because of recent development of severe weight loss, listlessness, and frequent, large feces. The patient is reportedly consuming more than usual, including his own feces, according to the owner. The body condition score after a physical assessment is 2/5. bad hair, slow thinking, and a general lack of thrift. When the patient urinates on the ground, it is a sign of steatorrhea. Which of the subsequent tests is best suited to support the prevailing diagnosis?
The condition in question is exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI), which is frequently observed in young German Shepherds. It happens when the exocrine pancreas fails to produce enough digestive enzymes, which causes the intestinal contents to be improperly digested. Trypsin-like immunoreactivity, which assesses specific pancreatic enzymes (trypsin) in the bloodstream, is the preferred diagnostic for EPI. Because not enough of these enzymes are synthesized in EPI, the TLI results are significantly diminished.
Which of the following causes of exophthalmos in cattle occurs most frequently?
The most frequent cause of exophthalmos in cattle is lymphosarcoma that invades the retrobulbar tissues, and affected cattle often have a very bad prognosis because they typically die less than a year after diagnosis. Due to the neoplasia's broad spread during the physical exam, other physical exam findings could include lymphadenopathy or melena.
Weakness, despair, lethargy, ptyalism, and posterior paresis are symptoms that a 5-year-old ferret exhibits. The patient's owner reports that these symptoms frequently appear every morning before feeding and typically subside after the meal. The symptoms have recently gotten worse and lasted longer. Which of the subsequent diagnoses is most likely?
The most frequent type of tumor in ferrets between the ages of 3 and 5 is an insulinoma. They are beta-cell tumors that secrete insulin; as a result, they generate insulin and exhibit clinical symptoms of hypoglycemia (i.e., depression, collapse, seizures, lethargy, ptyalism, and paresis). Following periods of glucose ingestion or depletion, as with exercise or overnight fasting, the symptoms may become worse. A diagnosis is made when the insulin level is greater than 250 pmol/L and the blood glucose level is less than 60 mg/dL.