FREE MACE Pharmacology Question And Answers

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Which of these medication classes is related with the side effects of hyperkalemia and persistent dry cough?

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Medications like lisinopril, perindopril, and ramipril are examples of ACE inhibitors. Headache, high potassium levels, and a chronic dry cough (caused by pulmonary kinin buildup) are some of the side symptoms.

Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is not considered safe during pregnancy?

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An ACE inhibitor, such as ramipril, can harm a developing fetus because they are teratogenic medications. Pregnancy-safe antihypertensive medications include hydralazine, labetalol, methyldopa, and nifedipine.

Which of these vitamins is deficient in pernicious anemia?

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Insufficient amounts of vitamin B12 cause pernicious anemia. It is brought on by a deficiency in intrinsic factor, which the stomach normally produces to aid in the absorption of vitamin B12. It takes vitamin B12 to create healthy red blood cells.

Which of the following medications does pyridoxine effectively counteract?

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Pyridoxine, a type of vitamin B6, is employed to address isoniazid toxicity, a medication used to treat tuberculosis and known for its potential to induce peripheral neuropathies. Its administration helps mitigate the risk of this adverse effect.

In what condition of drug toxicity do levels of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine increase?

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NAPQI, also known as N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, is a harmful byproduct that builds up in individuals experiencing acetaminophen (paracetamol) toxicity. Normally, the body utilizes glutathione to eliminate toxic NAPQI. However, during an acetaminophen overdose, glutathione levels decrease, leading to an accumulation of NAPQI. N-acetylcysteine serves as an antidote in this situation, replenishing glutathione levels and facilitating the conjugation and detoxification of NAPQI.

Which class of antiarrhythmic medications, according to the Vaughan-Williams classification, functions as a potassium-channel blocker?

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Drugs of class III antiarrhythmics function by blocking potassium channels. Class III medications include sotalol, dronedarone, and amiodarone. Class I medications function by blocking sodium channels; Class II medications are beta-blockers; and Class IV medications, which include diltiazem and verapamil, are calcium channel blockers.

For those who suffer from familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), which medication is the most successful course of treatment?

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While primarily prescribed for gout, colchicine also finds application in managing familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an inherited inflammatory disorder. FMF symptoms encompass abdominal pain, fever, and inflammation affecting the abdominal lining, pleura, pericardium, and joints. Colchicine functions as a microtubule inhibitor.

Which drug is linked to cinchonism, a syndrome characterized by side effects?

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Cinchonism, a collection of side effects, is linked to exposure to quinine, with its name originating from the Cinchona tree bark from which quinine is derived. Symptoms of cinchonism encompass hearing impairment, blurred vision, color vision disturbances, headache, vasodilation, sweating, and nausea.

Which medication functions as a proteasome inhibitor?

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Mantle cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma are treated with the proteasome inhibitor boradezamib. Proteins are broken down by proteasomes. The body uses particular proteins to destroy cancer cells in some types of cancer. Thus, bortezomib keeps these proteins from attacking cancer cells by blocking proteasomes.

Which medication uses mesna to lower the risk of hemorrhagic cystitis?

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To minimize the risk of hemorrhagic cystitis, an adverse effect associated with the anticancer alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, patients are administered mesna. Mesna functions by detoxifying acrolein, the toxic metabolite responsible for this adverse effect induced by cyclophosphamide.

Which of these medications is a good choice for gonorrhea patients?

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The treatment of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection, is recommended by both the WHO and CDC to involve the use of both ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Ceftriaxone, classified as a third-generation cephalosporin, may result in side effects such as eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, skin rash, diarrhea, and elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

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