FREE CTEL Language and Language Development Questions and Answers


A group of elementary school students who are learning English at the starting level have trouble pronouncing a specific phoneme. Which of the following approaches is most likely to be the best starting point for dealing with the kids' difficulty?

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Simple pair exercises contrast two phonemes that sound similar, such as sheep and van. For elementary beginning-level English language learners, contextualized minimal pair exercises, such as rhyming words in poems and songs, are likely to be useful in helping them actively engage in discerning and producing phonemes that are challenging for them (e.g., phonemes that are not transferable from the primary language).

A high school frequently funds and advertises multicultural activities and events. Which of the following outcomes for English language learners at the school is most likely to result from this factor?

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A school that promotes multicultural activities and events acknowledges and accepts the diversity of its students. This fosters a welcome environment at school where ethnic diversity is valued. Culture and language are closely related, therefore by enhancing English learners' feelings of wellbeing and worth, this culturally inclusive atmosphere is expected to aid in their language learning.

What fundamental principle of social-interactionist theories of language learning is it?

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The importance of social connection in language development is stressed by proponents of social-interactionist theories of language learning. They contend that meaningful interactions with peers and adults in the environment help language learners become proficient in the target language by giving them the chance to negotiate meaning and produce understandable output.

Depending on the nature of the dialogue, a person may opt to use various language nuances. Which of the subsequent circumstances best exemplifies this phenomenon?

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People frequently alter their speech depending on the circumstances of a dialogue (e.g., word choice, syntactic complexity). The degree of social distance between the speaker and conversation partner affects this stylistic variance, which typically refers to changes in the formality of language use (s). When someone talks differently to friends than to coworkers about the same subject, this phenomenon is frequently demonstrated.

Which of the following should a student focus on the most in order to become a competent writer?

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The ability to understand how context affects language use is referred to as pragmatic competence. A writer with strong pragmatic competence would modify the elements of his or her writing (such as the formality of language use) in response to contextual considerations, such as the intended audience and purpose for writing.

Which of the following exercises is most likely to help high school English learners get familiar with the conventions and standard discourse structures used in academic essays?

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Different text structures are used in different academic essay forms (such as attributive, compare/contrast, and problem/solution). English language learners can better understand the characteristics, elements, and structure of each essay type by analyzing each of these text structures based on representative sample essays. Students' comprehension of various essay kinds is further aided by the creation of graphic organizers that give a clear visual breakdown of each text structure. These graphic organizers also give students a tool for developing their own essays.

Oral presentations are being made by seventh-grade ELD students at the intermediate level. During each lecture, the instructor encourages the students in the audience to raise their hands and ask the speaker to repeat or clarify any points they do not understand. Participating in this way enhances the communication competence of English language learners largely by:

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Learning how to make up for one's shortcomings is crucial to gaining communicative competence in a new language (e.g., lack of familiarity with specific vocabulary or language structures used by a speaker). The main tools language learners employ to make up for such linguistic deficits and to negotiate meaning in novel circumstances are social language-learning methods (such as repetition, elaboration, and requests for clarification). During oral presentations, encouraging English language learners to ask a speaker to repeat or explain something helps students acquire important social language-learning skills.

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