DAT Practice Test (Reading Comprehension)

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What exactly is the neuropathological process of Alzheimer's disease?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: All of the options

(A) is the right choice, you can find all the items mentioned in paragraph two.

Which of the following, based on the passage, is related to anorexia nervosa statistics?
I. It affects 70 million people all around the world.
II. It affects about one percent of girls and young women.
III. Boys and young men now account for more than a third of the victims.


[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: II only

According to paragraph 3, one out of a hundred girls and women suffer from this condition, which is 1 percent. Therefore, Option II is a valid response. In paragraph 1,the passage states: "Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and T0 million worldwide." This statistic relates to all eating disorders, not only anorexia. The passage also explains in paragraph 3: "Males now make up 25% of all sufferers." Although this statistic does relate to anorexia, only a quarter of the sufferers are boys and young men, not a third.
Therefore, Options I and III are not valid responses. Since only Option II is valid, Choice D is the correct answer. Choices C and E-B are incorrect.

Which of the following facts concerning Alzheimer's illness is false?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Every year in the United States more than $100 million is spent on healthcare to treat AD.

(D) is the correct choice, notice that in paragraph one it says more than 100 billion dollars is spent for healthcare to treat AD and not 100 million.

Which of the following statements most accurately represents the passage's fundamental thesis?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by a distorted body image which can lead sufferers to undergo extreme measures to lose weight.

Choice E is the correct answer because the bulk of the passage is dedicated to exploring the reasons behind anorexia nervosa and the behavior that results, along with the treatment process. The statement provided in Choice D best expresses this. Therefore, it is most likely the central thesis of this passage.

Choice B is incorrect because it is merely a detail about anorexia nervosa. Although that is an im portant part of the passage, it is not the central concept.

Choice C is incorrect because although the recovery process is a part of the passage, it isjust one detail and is not the central concept.

Choice D is incorrect because although the link between the disease and fatalities is a part of the passage, it isjust one detail and is not the central concept.

Choice A is incorrect because although the possible genetic link that could cause anorexia is a part of the passage, it isjust one detail and is not the central concept.

Which of the following statements concerning Alzheimer's disease is incorrect?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Five percent of men around the world are affected by this disease.

(D) is the correct choice, according to paragraphs one and two we can see all options are true except option c, remember in the passage says 5% of men of above the age of 60 are affected by Alzheimer’s disease.

Assume that research in the future revealed a clear link between family history and anorexia nervosa. What is the most likely response from the author?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: The author would believe genetics plays a prominent role among other causes.

Paragraphs 4—8 explore some of the possible causes of anorexia nervosa, include genetics. In paragraph 5, the passage states: ”Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link." This suggests the author believes there is some validity to this idea. However, it has not yet been verified with definitive research. If research were to confirm this in the future, the author would most likely conclude that genetics plays an important role along with other causes. As a result, Choice C is the correct answer.
Although the author might welcome additional studies, it is less likely that the author would push for further research in the face of definite evidence. Therefore, Choice E is incorrect.

The author seems to value the role of research in determining the possible causes and risk factors of anorexia. Therefore, Choice A is incorrect.

In paragraphs 4—8, the author does not seem to promote one possible cause for the disorder above all others. Therefore, the author would be less likely to believe that genetics played a much more important role than psychological and emotional factors and Choice B is incorrect.

The author seems to have an opinion about the possible causes of the condition that is strongly influenced by statistics and research. Therefore, Choice D is incorrect.

Curcumin has a number of remedial quality, but which one isn't listed?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: None of the above

(e) is the right choice, according to paragraphs three and five all the mentioned options are attributed to curcumin remedial qualities.

Which adjective best reflects the impact of anorexia on family members of patients, according to the passage?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Strong

Paragraph 17 describes the impact of anorexia on the family members of patients. The passage states: ""Eating disorders don't only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient's relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships."" The adjective strong is a synonym for profound and best describes the impact of the disorder on loved ones. Therefore, Choice A is the correct answer.

The adjective superficial is the opposite of profound. Therefore, Choice C is incorrect.

The adjective unusual does not best fit the im pact of the disease. Family members are usually affected when loved ones become ill, particularly if they suffer from a long—term illness, such as anorexia. Therefore, Choice E is incorrect.

Due to the long—term nature of the disease, which could last for a couple years, the adjective fleeting does not best fit the impact on family members. Therefore, Choice B is incorrect.

The adjective unknown does not describe the impact of the disease on family members. In paragraph 17, the author also provides a few examples of ways loved ones can be affected. The passage states: "Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery." Therefore, Choice D is incorrect.

According to the text, which portion of the turmeric plant is used for medical purposes?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: rhizome

(C) is the correct answer, you can find the answer in paragraph four.

In the passage, which of the following assumptions does the author include?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: None of the above

In paragraph 11, the passage names the two main types of anorexia nervosa: the restricting type and the binging/purging type. As a result, Choice B is not an assumption on the part of the author and is not a valid response.

Also in paragraph 11, the passage states (emphasis added): ”Patients who suffer from the bingingXpurging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging.“ As a result, Choice C is not an assumption on the part of the author and is not a valid response.

In paragraph 3, the passage explains who is most likely to contract anorexia. The passage states: ""Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and fem ale.” As a result, Choice E is not an assumption on the part of the author and is not a valid response.

In paragraphs 11—12, the passage explores the different methods physicians use to diagnose anorexia. The passage states: ”Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height.“ As a result, Choice D is not an assumption on the part of the author and is not a valid response.

None of the choices is a valid response. As a result, Choice A is the correct answer.

What is the origin of turmeric, according to the text?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: India

(E) is the right choice, you can see in the first sentence of paragraph five that it probably came from India.

Which of the following statements challenges one of the passage's assertions?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Anorexics who fall into the restricting type usually overeat and then purge all the food they consumed soon after.

In paragraph 11, the passage explains: ”Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need." As a result, Choice B challenges, or disagrees, with an assertion in the passage and is the correct answer.

In paragraph 9, the passage states: ”Most people with anorexia nervosa see them selves as overweight when they are actually underweight.“ As a result, Choice C agrees with an assertion in the passage and is incorrect.

In paragraph 3, the passage explains: "Anorexia also used to be more com mon among European Americans, but that's changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.“ As a result, Choice E agrees with an assertion in the passage and is incorrect.

In paragraph 6, the passage states: ”Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self worth are often equated with a slender appearance." As a result, Choice D agrees with an assertion in the passage and is incorrect.

In paragraph 7, the passage explains: "There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse.“ As a result, Choice A agrees with an assertion in the passage and is incorrect.

What happens when nerve cells are degraded by Alzheimer's disease?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: more than one of the above

(e) is the right choice, according to paragraph six, all mentioned items happen in the process through which AD degrades the nerve cells.

Which of the following is NOT a possible long-term complication of anorexia nervosa, according to the passage?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Lack of menstruation

In paragraph 10, the passage explains (emphasis added): "Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation." Therefore, it is a short—term side effect and not a long—term com plication. As a result, Choice D which is the correct answer.

Also in paragraph 10, the passage states (emphasis added): "Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous complications." Therefore, Choices E-B are all possible long—term com plications. As a result, they are all incorrect.

One of the choices is the right response. As a result, Choice A is also incorrect.

What role does curcumin play in the fight against Alzheimer's disease, according to the case studies?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Curcumin helps macrophages clear amyloid-plaques.

(E) is the correct choice, as we can see in paragraph seven of the text, scientists have compared AD patients and control group and found out that curcumin helps macrophages clear out amyloid-plaques.

Which of the following statements does the author most likely agree with based on the passage?

[1) Eating disorders impact 24 million people in the United States and 70 million worldwide. These disorders go beyond normal dieting and involve extreme behavior related to food or exercise, such as starvation and binge eating. In the past few decades, eating disorders have become a major health crisis and can lead to serious com plications or even fatalities if left untreated.

[2) Anorexia nervosa is one of the most well—known eating disorders and is also one of the deadliest. People with this disease, known as anorexics, have an intense fear of gaining weight. They develop a distorted body image which prevents them from correctly evaluating their body size and shape. Anorexics believe they are overweight even when they are normal weight or even grossly underweight. When they look in the mirror, the image they see is not a true reflection of their appearance. As a result, they go to extreme lengths to lose pounds and typically starve themselves, until they become thinner and thinner. Many drop so much weight they develop a malnourished, emaciated appearance. Anorexics are often perfectionists who feel the disorder helps them gain control over their lives, when in fact, just the opposite occurs.

[3) Most people who develop anorexia nervosa are young and female. About 1 out of 100 girls and women currently suffer from it. In the past, few young men and older adults got this disease. However, those numbers have been increasing. This is particularly true for male athletes or young men in the military, who feel driven to be thin and in shape. Males now make up 25% of all sufferers. Anorexia also used to be more common among European Americans, but that’s changing too. Occurrences are rapidly rising among other ethnic groups.

What Are the Causes?
(4) There is no specific cause of anorexia nervosa. Like other eating disorders, it is a mental illness that arises from a combination of circumstances. Biological, emotional, and psychological factors work together to bring about this disease. While anorexia involves a preoccupation with food, the underlying issues are about much more than that. People with eating disorders use food and exercise to cope with painful emotions or situations in other areas of their lives.

[5) Many different factors can contribute to the disorder. Anorexia nervosa often runs in families and current research suggests there could be a genetic link. Feelings of low self—esteem and inadequacy are also two big contributors to this disease. A lack of control over one‘s life and a history of substance abuse can play a part as well. Other psychological factors include depression, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder. Many sufferers are perfectionists who feel the need to control every aspect of their lives.

[6) Social causes, such as troubled ties with family members or friends, are often to blame as well. They also include pressures from society to look thin and attractive. Success and self-worth are often equated with a slender appearance. Other social causes include a history of being teased by peers because of body size.

(7) There are several risk factors associated with anorexia. They include an early onset of puberty, participation in sports or other activities that place a premium on having a lean body, difficulty dealing with stress, regular dieting, and a history of physical or sexual abuse. Risk factors are not a guarantee that a person will become anorexic. Some young women who attend ballet classes and have problems with stress, for example, are more likely to get anorexia. However, others with the same risk factors cope just fine. Risk factors can play a part, but they don’t always lead to anorexia.

[8} Researchers are still learning about all the underlying issues that can contribute to anorexia nervosa. For example, they‘re studying possible biochemical causes. Some researchers are studying the possible effects of serotonin, a brain chemical that regulates mood and appetite. Serotonin levels have been found to be out of balance in a percentage of individuals with anorexia or other eating disorders.

What Are the Symptoms?

[9} Most people with anorexia nervosa see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight. They are obsessed with dropping pounds and do everything they can to lose weight. As a result, they often engage in purging behavior, which can include self-induced vomiting, along with a use of laxatives, diuretics, and/or enem as.

[10} This can lead to a variety of short—term side effects and long—term com plications. Some of the short—term symptoms include brittle nails and hair, cold or swollen hands and feet, constipation, dry skin with a yellowish cast, lethargy, and a lack of menstruation. Other side effects can last for a longer period of time and be harder to overcome. Without treatment, anorexics could suffer from malnutrition, heart problems, bone disease and other dangerous com plications. Some of these effects continue to take a physical toll long after the disease has been treated and cured. Unfortunately, death is another com plication of anorexia and about 20% of the people with this disorder die prematurely. The side effects that most commonly prove fatal include fluid imbalances and cardiac arrest. Suicide is another com plication often linked to the disease.

How Is It Diagnosed?

[11) There are two types of anorexia nervosa physicians consider when making a diagnosis. Patients who suffer from the binging/purging type regularly engage in binging behavior, or eating a lot of food in a short period of time, that is soon followed by purging. Patients who suffer from the restricting type of anorexia do not engage in binging and purging, but instead continually deny their bodies the nutrients they need. To determine if a person has either type, doctors question patients about eating habits and behaviors. They also perform exams, take x—rays and other scans and do blood and urine tests. Most importantly, they consult a medical handbook, known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, which has a list of criteria for each eating disorder. Even if a patient does not meet all the criteria, a doctor may be concerned enough to begin a course of treatment.

[12) Another method that can determine if a person has anorexia nervosa is to measure the patient‘s BMI, or body mass index. This is the answer to a mathematical formula that factors in weight and height. For example, if you weigh 135 lbs. and stand 63 inches tall your BMI is 24. For an individual who is at a normal weight, BMI typically measures between 18.5 and 24.9. If it drops below that, a person is considered underweight and could have anorexia or other another eating disorder.

How Is It Treated?

[13) According to the National Eating Disorders Association, only one third of the people with anorexia receive the treatment they need. In general, the most important aspect of curing the disease is stopping starvation and returning the patient to a healthy appearance. Treating anorexia nervosa involves three major steps. The first involves restoring the patient to a healthy weight. To do this, anorexics often must be hospitalized, particularly if their weight has become dangerously low. Since malnutrition and a low body weight can impede a person‘s ability to think clearly, anorexics also need to gain weight to move on to the next phases of their treatment.

[14) During the second step, doctors treat the psychological issues that led to the disorder. This can involve one or more forms of therapy. Cognitive therapy is a form of treatment that focuses on how a person thinks and feels. This part of the treatment process helps anorexics change how they see themselves and adjust distorted body images. The purpose of behavioral therapy is to alter the self—destructive behaviors of anorexia, including starvation and purging. During sessions, the patient may list alternatives to those behaviors or ways to avoid them. During interpersonal therapy, the doctor addresses the patient‘s relationships with others. He or she may discuss unhealthy or harmful relationships while suggesting coping strategies.

[15) In the third step, patients learn healthy behaviors related to eating and exercise. This involves another type of treatment known as nutritional therapy. Patients learn about the importance of eating a balanced diet and exercising in a healthy way. The use of medications can also be a part of a patient’s treatment plan and help adjust symptoms related to mood and anxiety. One or more of the following may be prescribed: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, hormones to restore menstrual cycle, and dietary supplements. However, some studies suggest medications won‘t prevent an anorexic from relapsing.

[16) Unfortunately, there is no entirely effective treatment for anorexia and recovery could last years. Even after gaining weight, anorexics may remain thinner than average. Often, they display healthy behavior toward food for months at a time then suddenly relapse. Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process. However, long—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.

[17) Eating disorders don’t only impact the people who suffer from them. They also have a profound impact on friends and family members. For them, it can often feel as though the patient‘s relationship with his or her eating disorder takes precedence over all other relationships. Parents and siblings of an anorexic often spend a great deal of time and energy worrying about him or her, or cajoling the person to seek help or change the behavior. As a result, living with someone who has an eating disorder can be a painful process, even during the road to recovery. Therefore, treatment plans often include counseling sessions for family members and close friends. This can go a long way toward repairing damaged relationships.

[18) For average anorexics, the disease lasts less than two years, which is a shorter time period than other eating disorders. It is unclear, however, what could attribute to this fact. Anecdotal evidence suggests anorexics may be reluctant to participate in research studies, which could skew the results. Can It Be Prevented?

[19) The best way to prevent anorexia nervosa is to develop healthy attitudes toward food and exercise at a young age. Parents in particular can encourage and reinforce this type of behavior in a number of ways. Talk to your child about social pressures to be thin, set a good example with your own eating habits, and accept and support your child in all facets of life. Pediatricians can also help identify anorexia nervosa early. They can inquire about eating habits and check for weight fluctuations, for example. Identifying a disorder early can go a long way toward preventing com plications and speeding the recovery process.

[20) However, there is no sure way to prevent this kind of disorder. Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an impact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy.

[21) If you are concerned someone you know may have anorexia, there are steps you can take to help him or her. If you see the warning signs of an eating disorder in a friend or family member, don‘t think it‘s all in your head or try to brush the problem under a rug. It is very likely the person is in denial about the disease, and if you don't approach him or her the situation could become worse. Although it can be difficult to bring up such a delicate subject, talking about it can only help and is the first step toward a positive outcome.

[22) Even if the person gets angry or defensive, don‘t give up. Try to approach him or her at a later time when you've both had a chance to calm down and regroup. It could take several attempts before he or she is ready to listen. Also, anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help. Always make it clear you’re only concerned about the person and have his or her best interests at heart. The best thing you can do for a person with anorexia nervosa is to encourage him or her to seek professional help. Eating disorders are mental illnesses that won‘t go away on their own. They must be appropriately diagnosed and properly treated.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: None of the options

In paragraph 22, the author writes: ”...anorexics often deny their behavior and at times don‘t even realize they have a disease. Remember that pushing, lecturing or blaming won‘t help.“ The statement provided in Choice E does not support this assertion. As a result, the author would most likely disagree with it and this is not a valid response.

In paragraph 20, the author writes: ”Outside pressures from peers or cultural influences often have as much of an im pact as experiences in the home. Therefore, it is important for parents to keep an eye on their kids, watch how they eat and observe their attitudes toward food and their bodies, to ensure they remain healthy and happy."" The statement provided in Choice A does not support this assertion. As a result, the author would most likely disagree with it and this is not a valid response.

In paragraph 16, the author writes: ”...Iong—term studies suggest that about half of all patients never fully recover.“ The statement provided in Choice B does not support this assertion. As a result, the author would most likely disagree with it and this is not a valid response.

Also in paragraph 16, the author writes: ”Involving family members and friends can help with the adjustment and be a big advantage in the recovery process.“ The statement provided in Choice C does not support this assertion. As a result, the author would most likely disagree with it and this is not a valid response.

None of the choices is a valid response. Therefore, Choice D is the correct answer.

What is one of the key molecular pathways that leads to Alzheimer's disease?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: inflammation of nerve cells

(C) is the right answer, according to paragraph nine, one of the important pathogenesis (the biological mechanism that leads to disease) in AD is the chronic inflammation in nerve cells. Options b and c are inflammatory changes not cause of AD. Option d is a broad category of proteins, and options e is wrong and attributed to chronic use of NSAID.

What is the passage's major point?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Curative uses of Turmeric in old and modern medicine.

(B) is the right answer, options a and b are incorrect and option c is ill-advised and not scientifically proven yet. Option e only covers a small part of the text which is anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin. Option b covers the historical aspect and the modern uses of curcumin which is indicated on the text and is a well-rounded sentence is stating the main idea of the text.

Curcumin use for a lengthy period of time may cause liver cell damage.
Curcumin should be used with caution in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in patients who consume excessive amounts of alcohol.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Both statements are true.

(B) is the right choice, according to paragraph fourteen both of the statements are true.

Which method of curcumin consumption, according to the text, will result in better absorption?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: consumption with food

(D) is the right choice, we can see at the end of paragraph thirteen that the best-suggested way for better absorption is using curcumin with food.

How does curcumin prevent inflammatory damage, according to the scientists?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: By preventing metal induction of NF-Kappa.

(B) is the right answer, according to the last sentence of paragraph twelve we can understand that the right answer is option a. Rest of the Options are just half sentences mentioned in other parts of paragraphs eleven and twelve and are not related to the question, you must be careful with the items that are trying to test if you have understood the meaning and the context at which they were mentioned by just cutting something that was mentioned in the text.

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Studies have not found any evidence regarding the toxicity of copper on neurons.

(B) is the right choice, in paragraph eleven we can see that “a study at Capital University Beijing demonstrated the toxicity of copper on neurons” so item d is not true. You can find options in paragraph ten and the rest of the options are mention in paragraph eleven.

Curcumin fights Alzheimer's disease in a variety of ways.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: more than one of the above.

(E) is correct, according to paragraph ten all the options describe how curcumin fights AD.

TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta are pro-inflammatory cytokines whose activation is inhibited by the reduction of ROS.

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: Both statements are true.

According to paragraph ten, you can see that both of the statements are true.

Which of the following items reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's symptoms?

Correct! Wrong!

Correct answer: ibuprofen

(D) is the correct answer, we can see in paragraphs nine and ten that ibuprofen is one the NSAID drugs that reduce the risk of developing symptoms of AD, the rest of the options are not drugs or are just enzymes and do not have the effect that the question is looking for.

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