Anatomy and Physiology Practice Test for the HESI® exam
A person with AB- blood should not receive blood from which other blood type?
Those with an AB- blood type should not receive blood from those with AB+ blood. Although both AB+ and AB- blood have A and B antigens, the person with AB- blood lacks a special protein, or “Rhesus” Factor (Rh), circulating in their blood. If they are given blood that has the Rh factor present, their body will make antibodies to this foreign substance and complications will occur. This is especially true in pregnancy situations where the mother is Rh- and the baby she is carrying is Rh+. Report a problem
Which blood type is considered the universal donor?
O- blood lacks both A and B antigens and the Rh factor, making it the only blood type that can donate to everyone. Try Again Report a problem
What is the only artery in the body to carry oxygen-poor blood?
Most arteries in the body carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart, but the pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs.
Chocolate cysts of the ovaries are attributed to which of the following?
Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue from the uterus (endometrium) grows in other parts of the body, such as the ovaries or bowel. If a woman has endometrial tissue in her ovary, the tissue bleeds and builds up over time, and as the blood ages it turns brown, hence the term “chocolate cyst.”
Which of the following is not true of synovial joints?
Instead of a synovial joint, the intervertebral discs of the spinal column form a fibrocartilaginous joint, which allows slight movement of the vertebrae of the spine.
Ligaments connect which two structures?
Ligaments connect bone to bone, and tendons connect muscle to bone.
What is the longest muscle in the human body?
The longest muscle in the human body is the sartorius muscle, which is located in the anterior thigh.
Where is the hyoid bone located?
The hyoid bone is located between the chin and thyroid cartilage.
Which of the following is not true of epithelial tissue?
Epithelial tissue is avascular, meaning it lacks blood vessels.
Which of the following is not produced by an exocrine gland?
Adrenaline is produced by the adrenals, which are endocrine glands.
The imaginary line that separates the body into superior and inferior regions is called what?
The transverse (horizontal) plane separates the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts. The sagittal, or vertical, plane separates the body into left and right halves, and the coronal plane separates the body into dorsal and ventral (back and front) sections.
Where is the pyloric sphincter located?
The pyloric sphincter permits food to pass from the stomach and small intestine
Blood vessels enter and exit bones through which structures?
Foramina are small openings in the body which allow cranial nerves, arteries, and veins to pass through solid structures.
Which cells are responsible for bone formation?
Osteoblasts are the main cells that make up bones. In organized groups, they produce a calcium and phosphate-based mineral that helps contribute to bone strength and densit
Why are bones considered to be organs?
Although it may not seem like it at first thought, bones are rigid organs. In order to be classified as an organ, a structure must contain more than one type of tissue, so because bones are made of both nervous and connective tissues, they meet the criteria of an organ. Although bones also contain cells and help make up the framework of the body, these are not reasons why bones are considered an organ.
Which of the following shows the correct order of the flow of waste through the large intestine?
From ingestion to excretion, the correct order that wastes travels through the body is cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
Which of the following is considered the primary pacemaker of the heart?
The sinoatrial (SA) node is located in the right atrium and is responsible for generating the electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat.
In which location does a sperm cell first fertilize an egg?
Fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube, after which time the fertilized egg travels to the uterus for implantation.
Where is interstitial fluid found in the body?
Interstitial fluid is the main component of the extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells of multi-cellular animals
What is the normal pH of blood?
The normal pH of the body is between 7.35-7.45. Anything less than that would be considered acidosis, anything higher would be alkalosis
What is the bladder capacity of the average adult?
The normal bladder capacity for the average adult is between 400-600 ml
Which lobe of the brain is associated with judgement, planning, impulse control, and social behavior?
In quick summary, the frontal lobe of the brain is involved in all of the above, plus things like motor function, problem solving, and language. The temporal lobe is involved with processing auditory information. The parietal lobe processes taste, touch, and temperature information, and the occipital lobe deals with visual processing.
What does lipase do?
Nucleases break down nucleic acids into nucleotides, amylase enzymes break down carbohydrates into starch and sugar, and protease enzymes break down proteins into peptides and amino acids.
Which is not a function of the the liver?
The pancreas, not the liver, produces insulin.
Which salivary gland produces mucin?
Of the three salivary glands (sublingual, submandibular, and parotid), only the sublingual gland produces mucin.
Which substance in the teeth continues to form throughout life and supports the enamel?
Dentin is a calcified substance that is covered by cementum on the root and covers all of the tooth’s pulp.
What is the name of the layer of the heart used for contraction that has striated muscle fibers?
The myocardium is the muscle layer of the heart, the pericardium is the sac surrounding the heart and its greater vessels, the endocardium is the inner layer of the heart. The decacardium is not a part of the anatomy of the heart.
Bile is produced by which structure?
Bile is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Which is not a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart?
The chordae tendinae are the fibrous strings that attach the valves (cusps) of the heart’s lower chambers to the papillary muscles.
Which chamber of the heart receives blood from the superior and inferior vena cava?
The right atrium is the chamber where blood is received from the superior and inferior vena cavas.
What is the name of the heart valve found between the left atrium and left ventricle?
The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid or left atrioventricular valve, is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. The tricuspid, or right atrioventricular valve, is found between the right atrium and right ventricle.
Where are neurotransmitters released?
Neurotransmitters are packaged into synaptic vesicles that reside in the axon terminal of a neuron
The structure that moves nerve impulses away from the cell body is called what?
The axon, or nerve fiber, conducts nerve impulses away from the neuron’s cell body.
Where does the final stage of sperm maturation occur?
Sperm are initially created and begin the maturation process in the testes. Then they are stored and go through the final maturation phase in the epididymis, a collection of thin tubes that carries sperm from the testes to the ductus deferens. (The seminiferous tubules are located in the testes.)
What is the hormone that stimulates uterine contractions?
Oxytocin is released by the posterior pituitary gland during labor to facilitate birth, and it can also be injected to induce labo
The exchange of gases in the lungs occurs where?
The alveoli are the terminal ends of the pulmonary tree where the exchange of gases occurs. They are only found in mammals
The volume of air in a normal breath is called what?
Simply put, tidal volume is the amount of air a person takes in without extra effort. In the average healthy person, this amount is typically around 500 ml per breath
What is the primary stimulus for breathing?
Although there are also other factors that influence breathing, the primary reason we need to breathe comes from the body’s desire to rid itself of carbon dioxide
What is the name of the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder?
In normal anatomy, there are two ureters, one originating from the left kidney and one from the right
What is the functional unit of the kidney called?
The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney because it eliminates wastes and regulates electrolytes, blood pressure, blood volume, and blood pH.
What is not a function of the kidney?
The lungs, not the kidneys, are primarily responsible for regulating O2 levels in the blood.
Where is fat stored within the skeletal system?
Yellow bone marrow gets its color from the large number of fat cells it contains.
What are the names of the bones in the lower arm?
The radius is the lateral bone that runs from the elbow to the thumb. The ulna is shorter and smaller and runs parallel to it.
The blood volume in the average adult male is approximately which value?
The average adult male has a blood volume of 5-6 liters, with the average woman having an average of 4-5.
A person with type B blood has which of the following?
There are two antigens that can be present on red blood cells: A or B. A person with type B blood has B antigens on their red blood cells and antibodies to the A antigen in their plasma.
What is the body’s earliest defense against invading bacteria?
The skin is the body’s earliest and largest defender against bacteria and invading organisms.
Which member of the endocrine system is often referred to as the “master gland” because of its influence on other glands within the endocrine system?
The pituitary is located off the hypothalamus in the lower base of the brain. The hormones it secretes affect a wide range of bodily functions, including growth, sexual and reproductive functions, metabolism, and temperature regulation. It is sometimes called the “master gland” because it influences other glands within the endocrine system, such as the thyroid, adrenals, testes, and ovaries.
The adductor muscle serves to ____, whereas the abductor muscle serves to ____.
Adductor muscles are those that move a body part toward the body’s midline. This can be remembered by learning that the prefix ad- means to or toward. Contrastingly, abductor muscles are those that move a body part away from the body’s midline. This can be remembered by learning that the prefix ab- means away from.
What is the functional unit of the nervous system, and what is its function?
The functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. The neuron is composed of dendrites, which branch to expand the surface area of the neuron and transmit information through synapses, the soma, which transmit signals originating from the dendrites, the axon, which is covered by the myelin sheath, and serves to propagate action potentials to other neurons. The neuron functions to transmit information in the form of electrical and chemical activity throughout the body; sensory neurons transmit signals to and from the sense organs, motor neurons transmit signals to and from the skeletal and muscular system, and interneurons transmit signals to and from other neurons.
Insulin is produced in the ____ and functions to ____.
Insulin, a peptide hormone, is produced in beta cells in pancreatic islets, which are also known as the islets of Langerhans. This hormone serves to metabolize macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins), and facilitate the absorption of glucose by body cells.
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