NYSTCE: Students with Disabilities Exam Prep #3
Ben has difficulty with social skills and reading body language. As a result, he doesn’t relate to the other children and is often isolated. He may respond inappropriately to their play, which in turn, alienates them. Which of the following strategies might help Ben?
Role-playing social situations is an excellent way to help children learn social cues and conventions. Talk about reading facial cues and body language, and discuss appropriate reactions to common social situations.
Sophie’s short-term memory scores are below the 10th percentile, and she has difficulty remembering rote facts, such as multiplication tables. Which of the following strategies might help her?
Many children with short-term memory deficits become discouraged when learning rote skills. Using a calculator or a times table chart will allow them to be successful at arithmetic tasks.
Janie has an auditory processing deficit. She does not understand or process auditory directions and often seems lost during class time. Which of the following strategies might help her?
Children who don’t process auditory information often benefit from visuals or written directions given in conjunction with the auditory input.
Many occupational therapists recommend teaching children to write upper case letters first. Which of the following best describes the philosophy behind this practice?
Occupational therapists prefer to teach uppercase letters to young children first because the letters are all the same size and have simple strokes.
Preschool teacher Mrs. Simonton wants to teach her children how to wash hands. Which of the following strategies is most likely to be successful?
Offering a hands-on demonstration, followed by practice at the sink, is the best strategy for teaching children this skill. Many teachers use Boardmaker or other communication tools to make a visual reminder of the steps of hand washing. Be very clear in directions. For example, you might say, “Turn on water, 1 squirt of soap, rub hands, rinse hands, dry with 1 paper towel, towel in trash can.”
Mr. Jones is ordering books for a new classroom. What types of books will best meet the needs of his students?
A variety of fiction and non-fiction books covering many topics and at many reading levels will best meet the needs and interests of a group of students. A well-stocked classroom library has around 1,500 books, organized by topic or grade level in an easy-to-use format.
Second grader Kyle has a conceptual deficit which makes it difficult for him to internalize and remember math concepts. Which of the following strategies might help him?
Using physical objects such as counters is often the best way to help children with conceptual or visual deficits to internalize and remember math concepts.
Mrs. Williams has an animal therapist bring her therapy dog to class weekly. The therapist teaches the children how to care for and treat the dog, and the children enjoy reading to him or talking to him. What are some of the benefits associated with animal therapy?
Children can learn empathy and the ability to read social cues as they learn to respond appropriately to an animal’s behavior. Animals also have a calming effect on humans, and children who have experienced trauma will often share feelings with an animal that they wouldn’t discuss with a human.
The concept of more or less, with its accompanying signs, is often very confusing for children. Which of the following strategies helps crystallize this concept?
Start by showing large and small candy bars, or some other desirable object. Discuss the concept of more or less at length to make sure the children understand it. When teaching the symbols for more or less, ask the children to identify which of two numbers is more. Write that number first. Write the lesser number next. Now make two dots next to the larger number and one dot next to the smaller number. Connect the dots and you’ll have the sign for less or more.
Kindergartner Duncan is struggling to hear sounds and learn to read. He seems embarrassed and discouraged, which is reducing his motivation to try. Which of the following strategies can Mrs. Christensen employ to encourage Duncan?
By approaching reading tasks playfully, avoiding making comparisons, and praising Duncan for his efforts, Mrs. Christensen will encourage Duncan to keep trying. Focus on strengths, rather than weaknesses, and use activities, games, and concepts that interest the child. Focus on learning, having fun, and giving best effort.
Aaron, who has been classified with ADHD, rushes through work assignments so he can go do more enjoyable activities. His work is often incomplete or poorly done, even though he has demonstrated the skills necessary for high academic achievement. Which of the following strategies might help Aaron focus and slow down?
Setting clear expectations for quality of work and checking the work before allowing Aaron to move on will train him to slow down and do his best.
The cost of assistive technology is often high and can present a challenge to parents. Which of the following funding sources might provide help?
Many state government agencies can serve as a funding source for assistive technology. Other avenues to try include Medicare and Medicaid, transition programs, or early intervention programs. Some companies offer used equipment or leased equipment at more affordable prices.
First grader Camille has a visual perceptual deficit. She has difficulty seeing the edges of shapes when printed on a worksheet. Which of the following strategies might help?
Providing shapes made from plastic or laminated construction paper will allow Camille to better understand the concept of shapes.
Which of the following describes a word clump?
A word clump describes a portion of a word that can make other common words. For example, the ending of the word bad is also found in the words mad, sad, had, and Dad. Teaching emerging readers to recognize word clumps can increase their confidence and help them learn new words more quickly.
Mr. Jones often uses a technique known as “choral reading” in his first grade reading groups, in which all the children read a passage out loud together. What benefits does this technique have over having the children read out loud alone?
Choral reading decreases feelings of self-consciousness and fear of failure, while still allowing the teacher to assess knowledge and fluidity.
Which of the following describes environmental print?
Environmental print refers to words and signage children regularly see in their environment. Pointing out environmental print introduces them to the concepts of letters and print.
Augmentative communication devices can help a child with physical or cognitive barriers communicate effectively at school and at home. However, these tools may not work for a child who demonstrates no communicative intent. Which of the following explains the reason for this?
A child who shows no communicative intent will not benefit from augmentative communication devices because these devices do not teach communication skills. Rather, they allow a child with limited expressive language to communicate.
What are “ear” words?
“Ear” words are words in which every sound can be heard, making them easy for a child to sound out. Examples include cat, top, dog, and mop.
Mrs. Williams has two children in her class who are hearing impaired. Which of the following assistive technologies might help increase their ability to hear and communicate?
An FM sound system amplifies the teacher’s voice, making it easier to hear and understand for all children, including those with hearing loss. An FM sound system also reduces strain on the teacher’s voice.
Casey has an auditory processing deficit and cannot effectively tune out extraneous noises. This makes it very hard for him to focus during class time and process verbal directions. Which of the following strategies might help him?
Writing the instructions on the board or using visuals will help Casey understand them. Other options might include placing him at the front of the class or asking him to read your lips. Play quiet music or run a fan during work time, or allow Casey to wear headphones.
Brandon also has difficulty copying work from the board or Smart Board. Mrs. Williams should try which of the following strategies?
By placing Brandon at the front of the class, he can see the board more clearly. Mrs. Williams might use handouts instead of asking the students to copy work from the board.
Kindergarten teacher Mrs. Christensen plays a game called the “rubber band game” with her students. She says a word and then stretches it out so each letter is extended and pronounced. She opens her hands wide at the same time to give a visual of a rubber band stretching. She claps her hands back together and says the word once more, quickly. Which of the following is this an example of?
Playful games that manipulate sounds, such as the “rubber band game,” are examples of phonemic awareness training.
First grader Duncan has difficulty differentiating words in a sentence. When writing, he forgets to include spaces. When reading, he runs the words together. Which of the following strategies might help?
Writing lines on a paper to indicate words and spaces may help Duncan learn to differentiate between words. Ask him to point to each word as he is reading or use a pointer during group exercises. Demonstrate print concepts, such as print runs from left to right and top to bottom.
How common are reading deficits in children identified with special needs?
80 percent of children identified with special needs will have reading deficits. If these deficits are not addressed early, the child may never learn to read. Without the proper interventions, many children engage in truancy or aggressive behaviors later. Adults with poor reading skills are more likely to be unemployed or employed in menial, poorly paying jobs.
Mrs. Williams is introducing fractions to her class. Which of the following represents the best strategy for early introduction?
Many children need to physically manipulate fractions to gain a concrete understanding of them. Use worksheets or examples on the Smart Board only after the children have had ample time to explore fractions.
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