NCCT Practice Test 4
Spirometry is used to measure what?
A spirometer measures breath flow from the lungs. It is useful in diagnosing asthma, bronchial conditions and many other diseases. It's important to note that spirometry generally involves forceful expelling of air and so may be harmful to some patients, for example those who have recently undergone thoracic or abdominal surgery.
What is a healthy BMI for a normal adult?
BMI (Body Mass Index) is calculated by dividing the body mass in kilograms by the body height in meters squared (there are many charts to save you having to make this calculation yourself). A BMI between 18 and 25 is considered healthy; anything under 18 is underweight, over 25 is overweight and over 30 is obese. Be aware that some people may fall outside the normal range and still be healthy, for example a power athlete carrying a lot of muscle may have a BMI over 25 and still be perfectly healthy.
What does OSHA stand for?
The OSHA is the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It contains provisions for the safe operation of workplaces, and has specific sections dealing with healthcare workplaces. All workers in a medical office should be aware of the provisions of the act that apply to their duties.
If medication is taken sublingually it is taken…?
Medications administered sublingually are placed between the cheek and gum to dissolve. Cardiovascular drugs, steroids and barbiturates are some examples of drugs that can be administered in this fashion. The advantage of this method of administration is that the medication passes directly into the bloodstream through the capillaries in the mouth, rather than going through the gastric system and the liver, which can degrade drugs and make them less effective.
Which of these is the baseline procedure for preventing the spread of disease in medical institutions?
Hand-to-hand and hand to surface contact is the most common way for infection to spread in medical institutions. Not everyone can wear gloves all day, but everyone can wash their hands thoroughly before and after patient contact, after using the bathroom, before eating food etc. Make sure you follow the correct procedure at all times and encourage colleagues, visitors and patients to do the same.
If you have to deal with a fire and are using an extinguisher, where should you aim the jet?
The aim of a fire extinguisher is to put out the root of the fire, which will be at the base of the flames. Always make sure that you are using the correct type of fire extinguisher for the blaze you are tackling (this will be indicated on the extinguisher), for example using a water fire extinguisher on an electrical fire may cause
For maximum efficiency, individual patient records should be organized by…?
Although certain aspects of a patient record maybe organized by time, for example consultation record sheets, it is very time-consuming for a physician to trawl through a file seeking the information they require. For this reason good recordkeeping will involve organizing patient treatment by category (e.g. medication prescribed, surgeries undergone etc.) so that the physician can immediately access the information they require.
Which of these is the abbreviation for a microgram?
A microgram is one millionth of a gram and is abbreviated mcg. It is vital that all people prescribing medicine know the difference between different units, as a mistake can be dangerous or even fatal. For example if a milligram of a drug is administered instead of a microgram the patient will be receiving a dose 1000 times stronger than the one prescribed.
The site of a blood draw should be cleaned with what?
Cleanliness to prevent infection is absolutely vital in all phlebotomy procedures. Make sure the area of the puncture is thoroughly cleansed with a sterile alcohol swab before sticking.
To give informed consent to a medical procedure or course of treatment, a patient must be…?
Informed consent means a patient has been given a proper explanation of a treatment or procedure and is mentally able to understand its purpose, implications and any drawbacks it may have. If a person is not mentally competent to do this decisions on treatment may be made by next of kin, medical practitioners and, if there is a conflict, courts of law.
Having tightened tourniquet around the upper arm of a patient in order to draw blood, you should carry out the procedure within…?
Always work quickly once you have tightened the tourniquet: leaving it on for more than a minute may cause discomfort for the patient and even have damaging results. If you are unable to find a suitable vein and carry out the procedure within one minute, loosen the tourniquet, allow blood to flow again normally and then retry, or choose another site.
If a patient is starting to become angry when talking to you, you should do what?
Most often a patient will become angry if they are frustrated or frightened. By remaining calm and reasonable you have a chance to demonstrate proper behavior for them to mirror, and then you can find the underlying reason for their anger. You should, however, always call for assistance if you feel physically threatened.
When prepping a patient for an ECG, the electrodes from Lead #1 should be placed where?
All leads for an ECG have specific locations that should be carefully followed. The electrodes for the first lead should be placed on the left and right arms, in a place where there is no thick muscle.
Which of these is the best way to send a document, e.g. a copy of a letter, electronically to another party?
PDFs contain all the information for a document, e.g. layout, sizing, images etc., within themselves. This means that they do not rely on the recipient having the same software as you to interpret the document, and so eliminates the chances of misunderstanding through changes in format etc. Documents can be saved as PDFs from most common word processing software.
When choosing a site to place electrodes for an ECG test, the site should be all of these things except…?
In order to achieve the best results, electrodes should be placed on a site that is clean, smooth and dry. Any moisture should be wiped away as it could interfere with the adhesion of the electrodes and so interfere with clear results.
When should patient encounter forms be prepared for staff?
Any consultation should be recorded on a patient encounter form. Best practice is to have these ready before the working day begins so that medical staff can have them ready for their appointments.
Which of these is not a type of patient record?
It's important that patient medical records should be properly designated regarding their current status and that this data should be changed as often as necessary. The three categories are active (currently undergoing treatment), inactive (not currently undergoing treatment but may return to treatment in future) or closed (patient has been discharged and is not expected to return).
Payment for treatment should be taken/organized when?
It is vital that payment is taken, or insurance company authorization of the treatment is obtained, before treatment is given. If this is not done the treatment provider risks potentially severe losses in the event of a dispute.
In which of these circumstances may you refuse to give medical treatment to a person with HIV/AIDS?
Both the AMA and the ADA have issued ethical guidance that patients with HIV/AIDS have a right to treatment. A medical practitioner may not withhold treatment from a patient because they have HIV/AIDS, regardless of the reason for their infection or their current treatment. If a practitioner is genuinely not competent to treat a patient with HIV/AIDS they must pass the case to a practitioner who is.
Patients should be advised to undertake self-examination for breast lumps at what intervals?
Patients should be instructed in the correct procedures to examine for breast lumps, and advised that they should perform such an examination at least once a month. Remember that men can get breast cancer as well as women and they should be advised to do the same.
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