Which of the following is an example of a mineral?
Sodium chloride is another word for salt, a mineral. Flaxseed is a source of fat. Minerals are a type of micronutrient, but micronutrients are not an example of minerals. Vitamin D is a type of vitamin.
Which of the following is NOT a blood type?
The four blood types are A, B, AB, and O. Type AB is the universal recipient, and type O is the universal donor.
Which of these planets is located farthest from the sun?
The order of the planets from the sun is: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
How many grams are in one kilogram?
Mass is measured in grams. One kilogram equals 1,000 grams, and one gram equals 1,000 milligrams.
Which one of the following clouds are mid-level clouds?
Mid-level clouds, or middle clouds, occur at altitudes of 6,000 to 20,000 feet. Cirrus = High Clouds, Alto = Middle Clouds, Stratus = Low Clouds.
Which of the following are NOT decomposers?
Vultures are considered to be scavengers since they eat dead animals. Decomposers are organisms that break down organic matter from dead animals and plants into simpler substances.
Bile is produced by the
Bile is a dark, bitter fluid produced continuously by the liver. Bile helps to digest lipids within the small intestine.
What kind of rock is formed when existing rock types are changed by heat and pressure?
When the original rock is subjected to extreme heat and pressure, profound physical and chemical changes can occur. The three main types of rocks are metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary. Metamorphic rocks make up a large part of the Earth's crust. Common metamorphic rocks include marble, slate, gneiss, quartzite, and schist.
These subatomic particles have a positive electric charge.
The basic unit of matter is called the Atom. Atoms consist of a dense nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The nucleus contains a mixture of protons which are positively charged, and neutrons, which are electrically neutral.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the autonomic nervous system?
The somatic nervous system controls voluntary actions, while the autonomic nervous system functions primarily below the level of consciousness to control functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, breathing, and swallowing. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Which layer of the atmosphere is closest to the earth?
The troposphere begins at the Earth's surface and extends up 4-12 miles high. Almost all weather occurs in the Troposphere.
Which of Newton's laws proves that: An object at rest will stay at rest unless an external force acts upon it. An object in motion won't change its velocity unless an external force acts upon it.
Newton's First Law is often called the law of inertia. Newton's Second Law: Force=Mass x Acceleration. Newton's Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite re-action.
The law of conservation of energy can be restated as which of the following?
The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change from one form to another. For example, an object dropped from a rooftop will undergo a change from potential energy to kinetic energy and hit the floor with a force equal to the amount of work done on the object by gravity.
The International System (SI) unit of force is which of the following?
Force is the product of mass and acceleration. Mass has units of kilograms and acceleration has units of meters per second per second. In honor of Isaac Newton and his equation F=ma, force is measured in newtons.
Mitosis is the process by which:
Mitosis is the process by which cells replicate their chromosomes. The information contained in the cell’s nucleus is duplicated and one cell splits into two. This process occurs in all somatic cells.
Which of the following is true of chemical elements?
Chemical elements are substances containing only atoms of a single type. The element Carbon, for example, only contains Carbon atoms. Molecules are compounds of the same or different elements. Chemical elements include metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.
Which element in the protein hemoglobin, found in red blood cells, is responsible for binding oxygen?
Iron is found at the center of each of the hemoglobin subunits and is responsible for ‘grabbing’ oxygen from the air in the lungs, and releasing it as it travels through your body. As a result, iron deficiency can cause a lowered level of red blood cells, and lower your ability to exercise!
When a blood vessel is injured, which of the following is responsible for clotting?
Platelets are small proteins in the bloodstream that react when the body signals an injury, and are the primary mechanism of clotting.
The Earth is about 4.5 billion years old. About many years ago did life first appear?
There are many arguments about when life first appeared on Earth, with some estimates placing life starting as long ago as 3.8 billion years. The generally accepted estimate is 3.5 billion years ago, and these first life forms were single celled organisms and RNA molecules that could self replicate.
The sun’s energy reaches the Earth’s surface primarily in the form of:
The sun’s energy reaches earth in the form of visible light. Some ultraviolet radiation does reach the Earth’s surface, but much of it is blocked by the ozone layer and particles in the atmosphere.
Which of the following statements about the Earth is true?
The mantle is the largest segment of the Earth’s structure, and takes up the most space by volume. The crust is interestingly not the only solid part of Earth, the inner core is also solid, and is believed to be made up of a mixture of iron and nickel.
If an unbalanced force acts on an object, then the object will begin to accelerate according to:
Newton’s second law states that if an unbalanced force acts on an object, it will begin to move according to Force = mass x acceleration. On the other hand, Newton’s first law states that an object will remain at rest unless acted upon by a force. Kepler’s laws are related to planetary motion!
In meiosis, one parent cell becomes how many daughter cells?
In meiosis, one parent cell initially splits into two daughter cells that each have 46 chromosomes. Those daughter cells then split again into a total of 4 cells, each have just 1 set, or 23 total, chromosomes.
The potential energy of an object with a mass of 5kg that is placed 20 meters above the surface of the earth is most nearly:
The potential energy of an object is equal to Ep = mgh, where m is the mass, g is the gravitational acceleration constant, and h is the height. The gravitational acceleration is 9.81 m/s2. As a result, we can calculate the potential energy to be: Ep = 5kg * 9.81 m/s2 *20m = 981 Joules.
One of the reasons bacteria can be so deadly is because they multiply very quickly. E. coli has a doubling time of around 15 minutes. This means that if 100 bacteria are left alone for 2 hours, they will multiply to become:
A doubling time of 15 minutes means that the bacteria double in number every 15 minutes. In two hours, that is 8 doubling periods. We can thus calculate the number of bacteria by 1008 = 25,600.
Organisms which help one another survive by providing a mutual benefit to each other are known as:
Symbiotic organisms, known as symbionts, provide a mutual benefit to one another. For example, the clownfish helps to defend sea anemones from various predators, while the sea anemones poisonous tentacles provide a safe home for the clownfish, which is immune to the anemones poison.
In taxonomy, which classification comes after ‘family’?
The taxonomic classification proceeds according to life, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species, with the higher classifications encompassing more organisms.
All of the following are phenotypic traits except for:
Phenotypic traits are those that are expressed physically, including red hair, blue eyes, ears, teeth, or skin (among many more). Genotypic traits cannot be seen physically, but are present in your genome. As a result, a missing 22nd chromosome is a genotypic trait, although it would undoubtedly result in some phenotypic traits as well.
The cell membrane is a structure composed primarily of:
The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer, and is composed primarily of two layers of lipid molecules that are lying opposite to one another. The cell membrane does contain some protein, but not very much.
Bile is a substance secreted to help digest fats. Bile is stored in the:
The gallbladder is a small organ next to the liver that secretes bile. If your gallbladder is malfunctioning, eating fatty foods will result in a very bad stomach ache.
If CaCl2 is mixed with Na2SO4 in aqueous solution, which of the following is a possible product?
If these compounds are mixed in aqueous solution, a double displacement reaction will likely occur, because they are both ionic compounds. As a result, the two primary products formed will be NaCl and CaSO4 (but not Ca2SO4 because this molecule would have to hold a charge, and would be unstable).
Which type of rock would likely be found at the bottom of a river bed?
Sedimentary rock is formed from ‘sediment’, which is a mixture of sand, shells, and other small pieces of material commonly located at the bottom of a river or lake. Basalt is a type of igneous rock, formed from volcanoes.
All magnets have two poles which can be used to predict the direction of their magnetic waves. These two poles are the:
Magnets have a north pole and a south pole. The magnetic field lines travel from the North Pole to the South Pole.
Approximately how many bones exist in the human body?
There are 206 human bones in the body. We actually are born with more bones, about 260-270. However, many of these smaller bones fuse into one another by age 1, resulting in 206 ‘official’ bones.
The nucleus of an atom is composed of:
The nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons. The electrons orbit the nucleus in electron orbitals.
What is the second most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Oxygen represents 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere, and nitrogen is about 78%. The remaining 1-2% is made up of carbon dioxide, argon, and helium.
As light passes through a substance, the incident angle changes, meaning the light’s entering angle is different than its exiting angle. This is an example of:
Refraction is defined as the change in direction of light (or a wave) as it passes through a material. Diffraction is wave interference by a medium which causes scattering of the light.
Which of the following body systems is most closely associated with the immune system?
The lymphatic system is responsible for recycling dead cells, including dead bacteria and other infectious organisms. As well, the lymphatic system carries lymph, which has the highest concentration of white blood cells (lymphocytes).
Which of the following planets has a perfectly circular orbit?
None of the planets have perfectly circular orbits. Planets orbit in an elliptical shape, which can be thought of as an oval. The planets that are farther from the sun, such as Neptune, have significantly more elliptical orbits than the planets closer to the sun.
Sound waves will travel the fastest in a medium that is:
The speed of sound is directly proportional to the density of the material through which it travels, with the speed being faster in more dense materials. For example, the speed of sound in air is 343 m/s, but the speed of sound in water, a more dense substance, is 1,463 m/s.
What is the molecular weight of the compound C2H5O?
To find the molecular weight of a compound, we add up the masses of each individual element. Carbon has an atomic mass of 12, hydrogen is 1, and oxygen is 16. Thus, 12(2) + 1(5) + 16 = 45 atomic mass units.
Craig ran 2.5 miles on his afternoon run. How many feet did he run?
There are 5,280 feet in a mile, meaning that 2.5 miles is 13,200 feet.
Of the following layers of the atmosphere, which is the closest to the earth’s surface and contains the majority of clouds?
The troposphere is the layer of the atmosphere that is immediately above the Earth’s surface. Next up is the stratosphere, then mesosphere, and thermosphere.
One of the primary characteristics of a bacteria is its:
All bacteria are prokaryotes, which is a classification of organisms that do not have nuclear membranes. Many other cells that are not bacteria are able to move or consume glucose, and all cells have a cell membrane!
A calorie is actually a measure of energy, and is equivalent to how many Joules?
A calorie is defined as the amount of energy required to heat 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius, and is equal to 4.18 Joules. Thus, when you eat food, you can calculate how much energy you are taking in! However, food ‘calories’ are actually kilocalories, meaning if you eat a chocolate bar with 140 calories in it, it is actually 140,000 calories!
A nerve impulse is transmitted through your nervous system primarily by:
Nerve impulses are transmitted in the nervous system primarily through the means of electric potentials, which are generated by a change in the balance of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions in the nerve cell.
The earth’s surface is covered by approximately what percent water?
The earth’s surface is primarily covered by water, with 71% of the earth’s surface being oceans, lakes, or rivers.
Blood that flows back from the body will enter the heart through the:
Blood flowing back from the body is low in oxygen and will enter the right atrium, where it proceeds to the right ventricle and then is pumped to the lungs.
Carbon dioxide can be consumed and converted into glucose by what type of organism?
Plants are capable of photosynthesis, and they use light energy from the sun to consume carbon dioxide and water to form glucose.
Two separate weather fronts will have air that is of different:
Weather fronts are distinct in their density, which is affected by moisture content and temperature.
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