TASC Reading Practice Quiz 4

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Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. If the author had wished to explain why "most" people (line 40) feel the way they do, the explanation would have probably focused on the

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("lack of objectivity in the classification of Homo sapiens") is correct. Through exaggeration and sarcasm, the author ridicules people's need for greater distinction. The author suggests that this need stems from defensiveness and insecurity: "it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to how we explain certain qualities." (lines 41-45). The author then implies that whether a capability is classified as strictly human depends on how it is defined, thus making the classification subject to opinion and bias: "even if 'language' is so defined that the waggle dance slips in" (lines 53-54).

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. According to the author, what is most responsible for influencing our perception of a comparison between species?

Correct! Wrong!

Choice (" The organizational scheme imposed on the living world by researchers and philosophers") is correct. The author opens by explaining how “[t]he world can be classified in different ways” (line 1) and states that “[t]he classifications . . . determine which comparisons seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analogical” (lines 3-6). The passage then shows how comparisons differ according to which system of classification is used.

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. Which of the following comparisons would be "legitimate" for all living organisms according to the Aristotelian scheme described in paragraph two? I. Comparisons based on the vegetative soul II. Comparisons based on the sensory soul III. Comparisons based on the rational soul

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("I only") is correct. The Aristotelian scheme classifies species according to a hierarchy with all species included in the bottom layer (possessing a vegetative soul), some from the bottom layer included in the middle layer (also possessing a sensory soul), and some from the middle layer included in the top layer (also possessing a rational soul). Comparisons are only legitimate regarding soul types the species have in common (lines 26-34); comparisons between species regarding a type of soul found only in one are “merely analogical” (lines 33-34). Since all living organisms have a vegetative soul, comparisons on the basis of this attribute are always legitimate. However, since only some living organisms have a sensory soul, and only species at the top of the hierarchy have a rational soul, comparisons with respect to these attributes cannot be legitimately made among all living creatures.

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. In line 44, "insulated from" means

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("segregated from") is correct. "Segregated from" means separated from or kept distinct from. The surrounding text discusses how human beings want to distinguish their species on grounds outside of the classification systems by which every species is considered unique. Examples are used to illustrate how people try to characterize certain abilities of Homo sapiens as not shared by any other species and thus, "uniquely unique" (line 42): "For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees not count as a genuine language" (lines 47-49). The example of the definition of tools to exclude use by other species is offered in the same light. Thus, the author emphasizes people's need to be "segregated from" other species.

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. Which of the following is NOT possible within an Aristotelian classification scheme?

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("A species having vegetative and rational souls while lacking a sensory soul") is correct. The Aristotelian classification scheme is hierarchical, with only three possible classifications: 1) vegetative only; 2) vegetative plus sensory only; 3) vegetative plus sensory plus rational. Accordingly, species possessing a rational soul must possess a sensory soul because they are a subset of the group possessing a sensory soul.

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. Which best summarizes the idea of "uniquely unique" (line 42)?

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("We are defined by attributes that we alone possess and that are qualitatively different from those of other species.") is correct. The subsequent text explains that each species is unique in accordance with its separate and distinct position in the classification schemes. However, many humans see Homo sapiens as also being distinguished for reasons existing outside the classification systems. The text provides examples of how certain abilities are not considered shared by any other species and are thus distinctly human: “For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees not count as a genuine language” (lines 47-49) and “No matter how ingenious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as ‘tool use’” (lines 56-59).

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. The author uses the words "For some reason" in lines 40-41 to express

Correct! Wrong!

Choice ("disapproval") is correct. The author indicates that when referring to the uniqueness of Homo sapiens, the general uniqueness of all species "is not enough for many (probably most) people" (lines 39-40). This exaggeration and subsequent examples are used to ridicule the need people have to define Homo sapiens as "uniquely unique" (line 42). The examples of how human beings distinguish themselves from other species are likewise sarcastic and disapproving: "No matter how ingenious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as 'tool use'" (lines 56-59).

Read the following passage and answer the question: The following passage is from a discussion of various ways that living creatures have been classified over the years. The world can be classified in different ways, depending on one's interests and principles of clas- sification. The classifications (also known as Line taxonomies) in turn determine which comparisons 5 seem natural or unnatural, which literal or analog- ical. For example, it has been common to classify living creatures into three distinct groups—plants, animals, and humans. According to this classifica- tion, human beings are not a special kind of 10 animal, nor animals a special kind of plant. Thus any comparisons between the three groups are strictly analogical. Reasoning from inheritance in garden peas to inheritance in fruit flies, and from these two species to inheritance in human beings, 15 is sheer poetic metaphor. Another mode of classifying living creatures is commonly attributed to Aristotle. Instead of treat- ing plants, animals, and humans as distinct groups, they are nested. All living creatures 20 possess a vegetative soul that enables them to grow and metabolize. Of these, some also have a sensory soul that enables them to sense their envi- ronments and move. One species also has a rational soul that is capable of true understanding. 25 Thus, human beings are a special sort of animal, and animals are a special sort of plant. Given this classification, reasoning from human beings to all other species with respect to the attributes of the vegetative soul is legitimate, reasoning from 30 human beings to other animals with respect to the attributes of the sensory soul is also legitimate, but reasoning from the rational characteristics of the human species to any other species is merely analogical. According to both classifications, the 35 human species is unique. In the first, it has a king- dom all to itself; in the second, it stands at the pinnacle of the taxonomic hierarchy. Homo sapiens is unique. All species are. But this sort of uniqueness is not enough for many 40 (probably most) people, philosophers included. For some reason, it is very important that the species to which we belong be uniquely unique. It is of utmost importance that the human species be insulated from all other species with respect to 45 how we explain certain qualities. Human beings clearly are capable of developing and learning languages. For some reason, it is very important that the waggle dance performed by bees * not count as a genuine language. I have never been 50 able to understand why. I happen to think that the waggle dance differs from human languages to such a degree that little is gained by terming them both "languages," but even if "language" is so defined that the waggle dance slips in, bees still 55 remain bees. It is equally important to some that no other species use tools. No matter how inge- nious other species get in the manipulation of objects in their environment, it is absolutely essential that nothing they do count as "tool use." 60 I, however, fail to see what difference it makes whether any of these devices such as probes and anvils, etc. are really tools. All the species involved remain distinct biological species no matter what decisions are made. Similar observa- 65 tions hold for rationality and anything a computer might do. In the third paragraph, the author criticizes those who believe that

Correct! Wrong!

Choice (" Homo sapiens and animals belong to separate and distinct divisions of the living world") is correct. Through exaggeration and sarcasm, the author indicates that attempts to distinguish Homo sapiens from animals on the basis of certain abilities not related to the classification schemes are ridiculous, subjective, and futile: “little is gained” (line 52). It is those who insist that Homo sapiens and animals be seen as separate who are the subjects of the author's criticism.

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