Selenium Testing Framework 2023

Selenium is a free (open source) web application testing framework that runs on browsers and systems. Selenium is identical to HP Quick Test Pro (QTP, now UFT), except it focuses on web-based applications. Selenium Testing is the term for testing done with the Selenium tool. Selenium is most often used to automate the testing of web-based applications such as HTTP websites and web services. Still, it also has support for testing any other software, from desktop applications and mobile apps.

Selenium can be used for testing any computer-based application: Desktop applications, server applications, mobile applications, or Web services. Selenium supports multiple browsers, and it works across many different platforms (Windows, macOS OSX, and Linux). The test scripts can be saved in easily read test packages for reuse or distribution.

Free Practice Selenium Online Test

Python scrapper vs Selenium speed

The two Python web scraping libraries were designed to accomplish different tasks. Scrapy is used to download HTML, process data, and save it, whereas Selenium is used to automate web browser interaction. Selenium is a good option if the project is straightforward. Scrapy is the clear victor here if you want a more powerful and flexible web crawler or if you have any programming knowledge. Selenium has many advantages over other software for web-based automation, including:

Selenium uses a Java API to interact with the underlying browser. The API is implemented in the language of the client system, allowing it to function on multiple platforms. The API also allows for custom extensions and third-party plug-ins, providing an extra support layer for many existing web browsers.

Selenium’s performance has been steadily improving as time goes on. Version 3 introduced a new cache strategy based on Recordable Recordings (RR), which greatly reduced start time and memory usage while increasing test stability when loading large pages with data manipulation and changing states across multiple user interactions.

Selenium activeElement

The activeElement property returns the HTML element with focus.
ActiveElement is a read-only attribute. It is available in Java API and Python API.
ActiveElement is a read-only attribute. It is available in Java API and Python API.

In JavaScript, the focus order of elements can be changed by returning the last focused element (i.e., < span >) by Selenium Hubs and WebDriver protocol or < span > element being clicked on by the WebDriver client or GWT.

Selenium IDE node js

Selenium automation testing has gotten a lot easier in recent years. Selenium IDE is responsible for a big part of this convenience. Users can interact with a URL and construct test cases in the IDE using playback and recording features. Additionally, programs such as selenium-side-runner enable developers to run tests on a node using a command-line tool. platform in js and selenium,

The selenium-side-runner platform has been designed to simplify running tests wrapped by a Selenium WebDriver. It can be used both on a node and in the browser, supporting different test frameworks. It also allows running tests in parallel by using a common interface without changes to existing code.
The Selenium Side Runner is an API that enables the creation of a batch process that executes automated tests asynchronously or in parallel. It uses the WebDriver API to take screenshots and log recorded test cases for later playback by Selenium IDE. The API allows users to use several input formats for writing test cases like JUnit4, NUnit3, TestNG, etc.

Locators in Selenium

Locators are used to identify HML elements on web pages, and nearly all UI automation tools support using locators to identify HTML elements. Selenium follows the same pattern, and it can also employ “Locators” to locate HTML elements, referred to as “Selenium Locators.” Selenium supports different sorts of locators. 

The Selenium client selects the most appropriate technique to locate elements, depending on the nature of the element being located. CSS selectors and XPath are both supported in Selenium. Learn more about them here: CSS selector, XPath.

Defaultcontent in Selenium

This method is used to switch the focus to the page and exit all frames. It loses access to the items inside the frames on the page once we move out. JavaScript WebDriver in Selenium
The JavaScript bindings for the WebDriver API use the mechanism of a “web automation client” to access web pages. A JavaScript web automation client is a browser driver that communicates with the user interface, mostly the browser’s window object. Still, it can also access native objects such as those exposed by macOS via Cocoa or through Windows via Windows.

Selenium switch_to frame

In Selenium, the switchTo.frame () method allows us to travel to a frame or an iFrame. After switching to the frame, you can access the elements included within that frame (or iFrame). With the switchTo method, you can supply the frame id, frame name, or web element locator to locate the frame. There are also some additional properties, such as the frame’s name, that can also be supplied to switchTo. These elements normally include an unload event handler for after page loading, a referrer URL for tracking purposes, and a method that allows the user to interact with the element.

Selenium Tester

Selenium is a well-known open-source software testing tool that works with a wide range of browsers and operating systems. It’s likely most recognized for allowing testers to automate in any programming language they want. Selenium uses a Java-based API, and it supports many operating systems (including Windows, OS X, and Linux). SeleniumRC

Selenium Remote Control (RC) is a browser application designed to control the Selenium grid, which is the top-level abstraction that takes care of many details of launching and configuring all nodes in a grid. It’s written in Java, so it can be used to control all the different browsers Selenium supports. It was designed with improved test coverage and performance in mind, with tests managing all parallelization and coordination between browser instances themselves.

It also includes an embedded WebDriver that can be used as either a ChromeDriver or XRemote.datamodel in selenium web driver; the datamodel property returns an instance of Model class that represents the data model of the current HTML element available.

Selenium click href

Selenium is a well-known open-source software testing tool that works with a wide range of browsers and operating systems. It’s likely most recognized for allowing testers to automate in any programming language they want. Selenium uses a Java-based API, and it supports many operating systems (including Windows, OS X, and Linux). SeleniumRC
Selenium Remote Control (RC) is a browser application designed to control the Selenium grid, which is the top-level abstraction that takes care of many details of launching and configuring all nodes in a grid. It’s written in Java, so it can be used to control all the different browsers Selenium supports. It was designed with improved test coverage and performance in mind, with tests managing all parallelization and coordination between browser instances themselves.

We can use the “linkText” or “partialLinkText” native methods in Selenium WebDriver to click “href” links. These strategies are useful if we know that the intended text will appear between the anchor tag tags and that the text between the tags will not change. This can be used to test links directly by the user or to find broken or missing links on a web page.

Selenium fetch and store using locators

One of Selenium’s most basic duties is fetching. The basic idea behind fetching is that if we want to refer to a particular element or object, we need some reference first. The reference can be either an ID that has been assigned to it or its name/locator using which it can be located on the HTML page. Here is an example of fetching page elements using the locator:

WebDriver is not limited to testing web pages. It can also test any Java-based application that accepts user input and generates a suitable output. The most frequently tested applications are web-based front-end development frameworks such as Struts/Groovy/Stardust, Spring MVC, Oracle’s WebLogic Portal, and JBoss Application Server. Selenium has Java bindings for these frameworks, whereas their native browser counterparts support only IE (Internet Explorer).

Selenium save and load cookies

We can use pickle to save and load cookies using Python and Selenium WebDriver. This can be used to test session management and any application that requires cookies to store data. For example, we can create a cookie that saves a value, delete the cookie and then check whether the value stored in the cookie is empty.

How to use assert in Selenium C#

The assert function is one of the most effective methods for detecting logic mistakes at runtime and correcting them at the production level. The assert method usually takes two arguments: a boolean expression and a message to be printed. While the assert method accepts two arguments, it must not contain a single function, and it must not affect the program’s output in any way. The assert technique is useful in large programs because it helps programmers quickly find and correct mistakes. Selenium has the assert statement available in C#.

Selenium assert
The assert statement takes one argument, which is a boolean expression. If the expression evaluates to true, assert is executed, and the code between the function call and the call to assert is executed. If it evaluates to false, nil is returned.

Selenium grabs an element.
We can grab an element using Selenium WebDriver using createElement and findElement methods. The findElement method searches for elements whose class name matches a given class or element name. The createElement method creates a new element whose properties are based on the specified element. By default, Selenium WebDriver uses XPath 1.0 specification when finding elements and XPath 2.0 specification when creating new ones.

Selenium Design Patterns and Best Practices PDF

Automation testing is becoming more popular, and Selenium is leading the way with its web driver. Study materials such as selenium cheat sheet PDF, selenium material PDF, selenium read PDF, and Selenium Tricky Interview Questions PDF are available if you don’t know much about selenium. Basic website automation can be learned in just a few days. However, understanding of all Selenium features and test automation frameworks is required. It will take you approximately 2-3 weeks of dedicated study and practice. We strongly advise you to take the certified selenium tester foundation mock exam to test your knowledge.

Selenium Questions and Answers

Many businesses prefer individuals with a bachelor’s degree in software development or a similar discipline, and you’ll require a deep understanding of software engineering and automated testing methods. You should be familiar with a variety of online browsers, recent versions of Windows Server, and SQL, as well as possess superior analytical, problem-solving, and communication abilities.

Selenium (Se) has six valence electrons.

Selenium WebDriver is an open source set of APIs for automating web application testing.

Selenium Remote Control (RC) is a Java-based server that receives HTTP commands for the browser.

Selenium Testing is a selected set of several software solutions that each strive for a unique approach to supporting test automation.

To create a Selenium script for testing a web application, follow these six steps:

  • Make a WebDriver instance
  • Go to a website and look around.
  • On the web page, look for an HTML element. 
  • Anticipate the browser’s response after performing an action on the HTML element 
  • Finish the test

You’ll need to develop test scripts in your preferred programming language to complete these stages in Selenium.
After you’ve built the script, you can use it to test any web application.

Selenium’s advantages include being free, open-source, and supporting a wide range of browsers, operating systems, and programming languages. Some disadvantages include the need for technical expertise, the time it takes to set up and maintain, and the fact that many testing techniques involve third-party interfaces.

Right-click the dropdown menu and select ‘Inspect element with Firebug’ to acquire an element’s XPATH. The matching code would then be highlighted in Firebug, right-clicked, and copied with XPath selected. We can copy the XPATH and paste it into the Target section of the Selenium IDE tool using this method.

In Selenium, you can use the TakesScreenshot interface, which allows the Selenium WebDriver to take a screenshot and save it in several formats. It has a method called “getScreenshotAs()” that takes a snapshot and saves it in a given location.

The following steps can be used to set up an unauthenticated proxy server in Selenium: From the package, import Selenium WebDriver. Create a proxy server (IP:PORT) ChromeOptions should be set () The proxy server parameter should be added to the options). The parameters should be added to the Chrome () instance.

In Python, Selenium works with elements. An element is an instance of the class selenium.webdriver.remote.webelement.WebElement, which can be a tag, property, or anything else. After using Selenium to locate an element on the screen, you may wish to click on it or look for sub-elements, among other things. Selenium provides methods for this Selenium WebElement.

In Selenium WebDriver, there are three major sorts of exceptions:

  • Checked Exceptions: These exceptions can be dealt with during the compilation process. If they aren’t handled, a compile-time error occurs. Examples include FileNotFoundException, IOException, and other similar exceptions. 
  • Unchecked Exceptions: These exceptions were caught at run time because they couldn’t be handled during build time. An ArrayIndexOutOfBoundException is an example of an exception that occurs when the index of an array is out of bounds.
  • Errors: Errors that even the try-catch block can’t manage. An assertion error is a good example.

When Selenium Webdriver fails to click on any element due to a problem, JavaScriptExecutor is used. Selenium Webdriver was used to run the JavaScript.

Our automation run may be significantly slowed. Because it is unstable and unreliable, the Thread.sleep () function is not suitable in automation scripts. When compared to the implicit and explicit wait times in Selenium, the time must be given in milliseconds.

When you run Selenium tests, they run in the background.

Yes, selenium can be detected in a variety of ways by websites in general.

We’ll use the 4xx class of status code to discover broken images with Selenium WebDriver, which indicates that a page or the entire website is unavailable. The status code of class 2xx (especially 200) indicates that the web browser’s request was successful and that the browser received the required answer.

In Selenium, the most common ways of dealing with alerts are: accept () – takes the available alert and accepts it. Dismiss ()—Removes the currently active alarm from the system. Send keys to the alert using send keys (keysToSend). It gets the alert’s text as a string.

Simply right-click on the element (under the ‘Electronics’ menu item) and select “Inspect Element.” Make a list of the “attribute-value” pairs, which in this case are class and title.

Use the command pip install selenium to install the Selenium bindings on our system. As a result, a Selenium folder should be generated within the Python folder. Run the command pip install –U selenium to update the current version of Selenium.

In Selenium, there is a concept of synchronization that describes implicit and explicit waits. We’ll utilize the explicit wait idea to wait till the page loads.

Selenium does not include a method to minimize the browser window by default. If you want to keep working on your desktop while the Selenium script is running and don’t want to see the execution steps rendered on the screen, you can utilize headless browsers like HTMLUnitDriver, PhantomJS, and others.

We will use an input type – checkbox in xpath.

In Selenium C#, the Page Object Model is a design pattern that is widely used by the Selenium community for automation tests. The Page Object Model in Selenium C# follows the primary design philosophy of creating a central object repository for controls on a web page. As a result, every web page will have its own class.

TDD is a software development methodology in which test cases are created to specify and validate what the code will accomplish.

In Selenium, we can open and shut tabs using the Robot class, but we also have the Key_Control concept. Use the following keyboard shortcuts to open and close tabs in the browser: Ctrl+t (Open New tab) Ctrl+w (Close tab)

The current_url method is used to get the URL of the webpage the user is viewing right now. It returns the URL of the current webpage loaded by the Selenium driver.

You can’t escape a shaky test. The likelihood of flakiness grows as your automation suit grows. As a result, rather than reacting to flakiness, it is vital to be proactive in your approach.

Selenium is a popular browser automation technology that is frequently used by testing teams in DevOps pipelines. It is an open-source solution that saves money for testing teams and functional testers that are in charge of UI testing. One of the most efficient ways to implement Web UI testing in DevOps is to utilize Selenium.

The client-server model is used by Selenium. Client-server architecture is a software architectural type that consists of two parts: a client system and a server system that communicate via a computer network or on the same computer.

The method send_keys in the Selenium webdriver in Python can be used to send keyboard input to a textbox on a webpage.

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is basically a record/run tool for developing Selenium Test Cases. The Selenium IDE is a simple tool from the Selenium Test Suite that can be used by anyone who is new to creating automated test cases for their online applications.

Selenium is a free (open-source) automated testing tool for validating web apps across multiple browsers and platforms.

Jason Huggins was the first to invent selenium in the year 2004. He worked as an engineer at ThoughtWorks on a web application that required frequent testing.

No, Selenium is a web application automation framework, not a desktop application framework. Desktop automation necessitates a particular type of automation tool, one that is specifically intended for desktop automation.

By executing the driver, you may get to the Chrome settings page. clearBrowserData (‘chrome:/settings/clearBrowserData’) To clear the cache, click the Clear Data option. To launch Chrome Developer Tools, right-click on the button and select Inspect.

Simply use the close() method in Selenium to close a browser.

It takes three steps to create a new Firefox profile and use it in an automated script.

  • Launch the Profile Manager application.
  • Make a new account.
  • In Selenium Script, use the created profile.

With the Selenium webdriver, we can get the attribute value of a web element by calling the method getAttribute and passing the attribute name as an argument. An element in HTML code is defined by its properties and values in a key-value pair.

The Selenium webdriver can be used to obtain an element’s CSS class name. The getAttribute() method is used to get the class name attribute of an element in an HTML document. The class value is then supplied to the method as a parameter.

Cookies are saved in a file. The values of each cookie can then be extracted and added to the current browser session from this file. As a result, testers bypass the login procedures in every test case because the information is stored in the driver session. This is why cookie management is required.

  • There are several options for dealing with it, one of which is listed below:
  • The Method of Absolute XPath
  • The whole route from the Root Element to the desired element is used in the Absolute XPath Method. As seen below, an absolute XPath begins with HTML and a single slash (/). You can generate XPaths with firepath (firebug). Absolute XPaths are more prone to regression since even minor DOM changes might render them invalid or lead to the wrong element. Using absolute XPath is not recommended in most cases, but it solves the dynamic element problem.

The user scenario being automated here is: opening a new tab, then returning to the previous window to do the remaining tasks. Selenium assists in handling numerous windows in such instances by using window handlers and javascript executors.

Installing Selenium using pip To install Selenium on Mac using pip, follow the steps below:

  • Download and install Python 3 for MacOS. 
  • Verify that pip3 and python3 are installed appropriately. 
  • Upgrade your pip to avoid installation issues.
  • To use pip3 to install Selenium, type the following command.

To install Java on your Windows PC, follow the steps below:

  • First and foremost, get Java from Oracle’s official website. 
  • Then, under JDK Download, select the version you want to download based on your system, whether it’s a 32-bit or 64-bit version.
  • After that, simply run the installer again, and Java will be installed on your computer.

Use the Chrome browser to launch Selenium IDE. Select the Selenium IDE icon from the menu bar. The Selenium–IDE browser is now available.

The driver is the most frequent way for refreshing a page in Selenium. get around (). method of refresh () The recursive ways to refresh a page in Selenium are the get method and navigate methods. The Send Keys method can be used to refresh a page by supplying the F5 key or its corresponding ASCII code as an input.

You must provide a valid URL before recording. When your browser arrives at this URL, the recording begins. Let’s get started by going to the Facebook sign-in page.
When you click “Start Recording,” you’ll be taken to the Facebook page, where you can begin recording user conversations. The user has complete control over when and how long they want to record. Every action taken by a user is logged and transformed into a script.

Selenium Grid is a solution that allows you to run tests in several browsers and settings at the same time. We may use this notion to run several test cases on different devices and platforms at the same time using this concept. In a nutshell, it lets many processes run simultaneously.

The Selenium framework is a collection of code structures for automated testing. In automated testing, we use tools to turn test data into test scripts. The Selenium Framework is used to optimize the code structure for automation testing.

The Selenium Keyword-Driven Framework is a mechanism for automating testing by isolating keywords for a common set of operations and instructions. All of the necessary procedures and instructions are written in a separate file, such as an Excel sheet. Users have complete control over and specification of the functionalities they wish to test.

Parallel testing in Selenium is the process of running the same tests in many settings at the same time. Using a Selenium Grid, the primary goal of running tests in parallel is to reduce the overall time and effort of automated browser testing while ensuring a high-quality product.

No, Selenium is a web application automation framework, not a desktop application framework. Desktop automation necessitates a particular type of automation tool, one that is specifically intended for desktop automation.

Selenium is a piece of software that automates the browsing experience on the internet. It is a webdriver tool that allows for automated testing of web applications by gathering data. It creates a user-friendly application program interface (API) to capture data and determine how the product should operate. outline of a heart

While creating a Selenium framework, it is vital to consider the following points:

  • Selecting a Programming Language: Languages such as Java, C#, Ruby, Python, and others are available. Behaviour-Driven Development (BDD) could also be utilized to complete small or short-term projects.
  • Selecting a Unit Test Framework: One must choose a unit test framework that will serve as the foundation, such as TestNG, which is a well-known unit test framework. It removes the majority of the constraints of standard frameworks and allows developers to write more flexible and powerful tests.
  • Architecting the Framework: This includes creating the “Selenium Core” component as well as the “Selenium Test” component.
  • Selecting a Reporting Mechanism: A good reporting mechanism helps turn test results into inputs that can be used to take prompt corrective action. 
  • Choosing how to build, version control, and apply CI/CD includes the framework’s build tool and dependency management. Collaboration and source-code exchange should be the focus of the automation. Use well-known CI solutions such as Jenkins, Bamboo, TFS, and others.
  • Using Additional Tools to Integrate the Framework: Use other tools to integrate the framework, such as AutoIT, TestRail, and Jira, to mention a few.

Using the Selenium webdriver and the TestNG test suite, we can execute many test scenarios. To run many test cases at the same time, we must enable parallel execution in TestNG. The TestNG xml file directs the execution of TestNG. The attributes parallel and thread-count must be used to trigger parallel execution.

Selenium frameworks that are low-code or no-code can be used to implement test automation. These enable business testers to automate some of their day-to-day tasks.
Selenium can automate in a variety of programming languages, such as Java, JavaScript, C#, Python, and others.

Selenium is a well-known web application test automation framework.

Selenium is a simple framework for testing web applications.
Selenium is a collection of software tools that allow test automation in a variety of ways.

Learning Selenium is not difficult, but it does necessitate discipline and a strategic road map in order to master it quickly. To study Selenium automated testing, one needs concentrate on four areas: Java, Selenium Webdriver, TestNg, and Frameworks.

WebDriver and Selenium IDE (SIDE) are both free to use.

SELENIUM is an open-source (free) automated testing framework for validating web applications across many browsers and platforms. Selenium Test Scripts can be written in a variety of programming languages, such as Java, C#, and Python.
Selenium is a web browser testing tool that allows you to automate your tests. Selenium WebDriver works with a wide range of browsers, including Chrome, Mozilla, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer, and allows you to easily automate browser testing across all of them. On your computer screen, you can observe real-time automated tests being run.

There are no licensing costs with Selenium because it is an open-source automation tool, which is a significant advantage over competing technologies. Despite the fact that it is an open-source technology with no official support, some of the greatest minds are behind its success, making the selenium community robust and expanding.