Hibernate Framework

Hibernate Framework in Java

Hibernate ORM (or Hibernate) is a Java programming language object-relational mapping tool. It provides a framework for translating a relational database to an object-oriented domain model. Hibernate solves object-relational impedance mismatch issues using high-level object handling routines instead of direct, permanent database calls. Hibernate ORM makes it easier for developers to create apps with data that survive the application process. Hibernate is an Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) framework that deals with data persistence in relational databases (via JDBC).

ORM (Object Relational Mapping) is a programming approach for converting data across incompatible types. It makes data production, data manipulation, and data access easier. The only thing the programmer has to worry about is the business logic. The use of plain SQL statements is not required. Relational databases such as Oracle, MySQL, M, SQL, and PostgreSQL are supported by Hibernate.

Free Hibernate Framework Practice Test Online

The mapping of Java classes to database tables and the mapping of Java data types to SQL data types is Hibernate’s main functionality. Hibernate also allows you to query and retrieve data. It produces SQL calls, freeing the developer from having to handle manually and convert the result set. Hibernate is open-source software licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License 2.1. Hibernate eliminates lines of code by preserving object-table mapping and returning results in the form of Java objects to the application. It frees programmers from manually handling persistent data, decreasing development time and costs. Hibernate is unique in that it doesn’t need to implement hibernate API interfaces or extend from hibernate API classes since hibernate application development classes are loosely connected.

Hibernate Connection Pool Size

The Hibernate Connection Pool Size attribute determines how many connections between the Model repository and the Model Repository Service database are allowed. 10 is the default value. Creating a connection pool for a Hibernate application is simple; in fact, Hibernate supports several different connection pooling strategies. You can increase the property to improve performance in deployments with multiple concurrent connections. This should only be done with the help of Informatica Global Customer Support. Make a service request for help with this problem.

  1. Click the Domain tab in the Administrator tool.
  2. Select the Model Repository Service in the Domain Navigator.
  3. Select the Processes tab.
  4. In the Repository Performance Properties section, click Edit.
  5. The dialog box Edit Repository Performance Properties displays.
  6. Increase the Cache JVM Options parameter’s value.
  7. Click the OK button.

Hibernate Save vs Persist

The save, saveOrUpdate, and persist methods of the Hibernate Session class allow you to save an object to the database. Depending on your needs, you can use save(), saveOrUpdate(), or persist() to store items in the database. These classes store data in the database, but they also allow a transitory object to be persistent in Hibernate.

Save() in Hibernate is useful for saving an entity to a database. This method can be called from outside a transaction. It is a widely used form of data storage. Only the primary entity will be saved if this technique is used without a transaction and if there is cascading between entities. Hibernate persists strikingly similar to hibernate save session (with the transaction). It’s in charge of adding the entity object to the context’s persistent state. It does so to allow for the tracking of any future changes.





It keeps track of objects in a database.

It also keeps track of objects in a database.

Return type

The save () method’s return type is a serializable object.

The persist () method has a void return type.

Transaction Boundaries 

It can save objects both within and outside of boundaries.

It can only save objects that are within the transaction’s boundaries.

Assigning of identifier value

The save() method enables the quick assignment of an identifier value.

The persist() method does not promptly ensure that an identifier value is assigned to a persistent state.

Detached Object 

For detached objects, it will add a new row to the table.

For detached objects, it will throw a persistence exception.

Execution of insert query

The save() method returns an identifier intending to execute an insert query immediately to get the identification. It makes no difference whether the transaction is outside or inside.

If an insert query is placed outside the transaction boundaries, the persist() method fails to perform it.

Supported by 

Hibernate is the only framework that supports it.

JPA is also in support of it.


The save approach is less useful in a long-running conversation that has expanded a Session context.

The persist method is used in long-running discussions that provide an extended Session context since it is called outside transaction boundaries.

Second Level Cache in Hibernate Spring Boot

A Hibernate second-level cache is one of the Hibernate object-relational mapping (ORM) library’s data caching components. Hibernate is a popular Java object-relational mapping (ORM) tool that allows you to store Java object data in a relational database management system (RDBMS). To extend Hibernate’s built-in caching capabilities, a third-party caching solution is used to enable the second-level cache. It’s used to get around the first-level cache’s limits. For all sessions created with the same session factory, a second-level cache increases application performance in terms of persistence. A request for an object can be handled via a second-level cache with substantially lower latency than if the request went to the database, even if the request is executed from numerous sessions.

getCurrentSession Hibernate Example

When you call SessionFactory.getCurrentSession, it produces a new Session if one does not already exist; otherwise, it uses the current hibernate context’s session. When you call SessionFactory.getCurrentSession, it returns a session object in a hibernate context and is maintained internally by hibernate. It’s constrained by transaction scope. When a transaction ends, it flushes and closes the session automatically, so you don’t have to do anything. If you’re working with hibernation in a single-threaded environment, getCurrentSession is a better option than generating a new session every time. The getCurrentSession() method is as follows:

  • Hibernate handles flushing and closing session objects internally, so programmers don’t have to.
  • It is faster than openSession() in a single threaded environment.
  • Otherwise, an exception will be thrown until you define extra properties in the hibernate.cfg.xml file, such as thread .
Hibernate ORM Framework

Hibernate Benefits

Hibernate is a database-agnostic programming language. It lets us concentrate on business logic by removing all the boilerplate code that comes with JDBC and managing resources. After covering everything there is to know about hibernating, it’s time to move on to the main topic: the benefits of using hibernate.

  • Inheritance, Associations, and Collections are all supported by Hibernate.
  • Lightweight and open source
  • Independent of the database
  • Caching in two layers
  • Because of its internal cache, the Hibernate framework is a high-performance framework.
  • It’s a step up from JBDC.
  • Hibernate supports One-to-Many, One-to-One, Many-to-Many-to-Many, and Many-to-One interactions.
  • Quick performance
  • Property of the Version
  • Scalability is simple.
  • It uses XML files to map java classes to database tables, and any changes to the database are solely done to these XML files.
  • Hibernate supports lazy loading.

Hibernate get vs load

Get() and load() are two hibernate methods for retrieving data for a specified identifier. Both of them are members of the Hibernate session class. If no row is accessible in the session cache or database for the provided identifier, the get() method returns null, but the load() method throws an object not found error. One of the most often asked topics about Hibernate is the difference between the get and load methods. The main difference between get() and load() is that get() requires a database hit if an object does not exist in Session Cache and returns a fully initialized object that may require several database calls, whereas load() can return a proxy in place and only initializes the object or hits the database if any method other than getId() is called on a persistent or entity object.

                          get() method

                                       load() method

It’s used to get information from a database for specific identification.

It can also retrieve data from a database for certain identification.

The Session.get() method will return null if the object with the supplied identifier cannot be located.

The Session.load() method will throw an ObjectNotFoundException if the object for the supplied identifier cannot be found.

This technique eager loads the object because it returns a completely initialized object.

Because it always returns a proxy object, this function is used to load the object slowly.

The database is always accessed when the get() method is used.

The load() method does not make a database query.

It’s slower than load() since it returns a fully initialized object, which impacts the application’s speed.

It is a little quicker.

It provides you with an actual object.

It creates a proxy object for you.

If you’re unsure whether or not an object exists, use the get() function.

Use the load() method if you are certain the item exists.

Spring JPA Hibernate DDL Auto

The spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto property is unique to Spring Data JPA and is used to specify a value sent to Hibernate under the hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto property. The typical Hibernate property values are none, validate, update, create, and create-drop, and you can explicitly set spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto. Spring Boot selects a default value for you based on whether or not it believes your database is embedded. If no schema manager is found, or none in all other circumstances, it defaults to create-drop. The Connection type is used to detect an embedded database. Others are not embedded, like hsqldb, h2, and derby. spring.jpa.hibernate.ddl-auto (enum) is a Hibernate feature that allows you to fine-tune the behavior.

Why use Hibernate over JDBC

Hibernate supports inheritance and association mapping. This is the most significant advantage of Hibernate over JDBC. There is no such thing as inheritance or association mapping in JDBC. It is simple to save and manage the entity in association mapping. For example, when we save the parent entity, the child entity is also saved. While JDBC has its place, Hibernate comes with many useful tools and capabilities that make connecting to your database a breeze. The following are some of the advantages of Hibernate over JDBC:

  • Hibernate takes care of this mapping for you using XML files, so you don’t have to write any code.
  • In the case of Hibernate, the developer does not need to be an expert at generating complex queries because HQL streamlines the process. In contrast, in the case of JDBC, it is the developer’s responsibility to write and tune queries. HQL is a more object-oriented language that is similar to Java.
  • In JDBC, mapping Java objects to database tables must be handled. Because Hibernate enables transparent persistence, no mapping of database table tuples to application objects is required during RDBMS interaction.
  • In the case of Hibernate, there is no need to construct a connection pool. You can use the command c3p0. When using JDBC, you must create your connection pool.
  • Caching must be manually maintained while using JDBC. The Hibernate cache is configured to use the application workspace.

Hibernate Merge vs SaveOrUpdate

The MERGE method offers greater flexibility when saving data objects since you need not worry about attaching an object to Session. You can create an object, set Id and other properties on your own, and save it without worrying about the Hibernate Session exception. If you’re using saveOrUpdate, the object saved MUST be attached to the session.



  • The merge() method triggers a MergeEvent handled by the DefaultMergeEventListener Hibernate event listener.
  • Merge() method, Copy the state of the given object onto the persistent object with the same identifier.
  • Object merge(Object object) throws HibernateException
  • The merge operation can only be called within a transaction; an exception will be thrown outside of a transaction.
  • use same as saveOrUpdate(Object) but to avoid the “NonUniqueObjectException” exception, we should use the merge(object) method.
  • The main purpose of the merge method is to update a persistent entity instance with new field values from a detached entity instance.
  • This method appears only in the Hibernate API.
  • its return void, void saveOrUpdate(Object object) throws HibernateException.
  • Hibernate saveOrUpdate() method adds the entity object to persistent context and tracks any further changes. It saved any further changes at the time of committing a transaction.
  • We can use saveOrUpdate(Object) to add/update an object into database. If an identifier exists, it will update the record; else, add a new record.
  • The saveOrUpdate method triggers a SaveOrUpdateEvent, which the DefaultSaveOrUpdateEventListener Hibernate event listener handles.
  • saveOrUpdate() can be used without transaction also, but mapped objects not getting saved if session is not flushed.

Hibernate N 1 Issue

When an ORM, such as hibernate, conducts one query to retrieve the parent entity and N queries to retrieve the child entities, this is known as the N+1 query problem. As the number of entities in the database grows, the application’s performance can suffer due to the queries being run individually. When you utilize FetchType.LAZY for your entity associations, the Hibernate N+1 problem occurs. Hibernate will run n-additional queries to load lazily fetched objects if you run a query to pick n-entities and then try to invoke any access method of your entity’s slow association.

Hibernate Inverse True

Developers are always perplexed by the keyword inverse. The “inverse” keyword is always declared in one-to-many and many-to-many relationships (many-to-one relationships do not have an inverse keyword), indicating which side is responsible for the relationship’s maintenance. Only the “relationship owner” should maintain the relationship in Hibernate, and the “inverse” keyword is used to specify which side of the relationship should be maintained. In a nutshell, inverse=”true” indicates that this is the relationship owner, but inverse=”false” (default) indicates that it is not. The inverse keyword informs Hibernate which of the two tables is the relationship owner, and the class associated with the relationship owner table will UPDATE the relationship.

Hibernate Question and Answer

Hibernate is an open-source object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for web applications that provides a framework for mapping object-oriented domain models to relational databases.

Hibernate is a Java framework that includes an abstraction layer and takes care of the implementations. Writing a query for CRUD activities, establishing a connection with databases, and other chores are included in the implementations.

Hibernate is an open-source object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for web applications that provides a framework for mapping object-oriented domain models to relational databases. The containerization of objects and the abstraction that offers that capacity are the foundations of object-relational mapping.

Hibernate is an open-source Object-Relational Persistence and Query service that any Java application may use. Hibernate is a Java framework that maps Java classes to database tables and Java data types to SQL data types, freeing the developer from most data persistence programming responsibilities.

Hibernate ORM (or just Hibernate) is a Java programming language object–relational mapping tool. It provides a framework for translating a relational database to an object-oriented domain model. Hibernate solves object–relational impedance mismatch issues by using high-level object handling routines instead of direct, permanent database calls.

Hibernate ORM makes it easier for developers to create apps with data that survive the application process. Hibernate is an Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) framework dealing with data persistence in relational databases (via JDBC).

We can easily combine a spring application with a hibernate application.

Hibernate is an open-source object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for web applications that provides a framework for mapping object-oriented domain models to relational databases.

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