#### 1) Poverty is a relative measure that depends on prices, the standard of living, and the __________ that others earn.

Poverty is a relative measure that depends on prices, the standard of living, and the incomes that others earn.

#### 2) Afterwards, they had to deal with some major and __________ wars as well.

Afterwards, they had to deal with some major and minor wars as well.

#### 3) A knack for _______, it can be argued, allows one access to a whole range of careers, many of which require one to forsake direct, honest speech. (Select TWO words)

Please select 2 correct answers

The answers are “prevarication” and “equivocation”. ‘..to forsake...speech' means to not speak truthfully. Thus the word in the blank should be a synonym with dishonest (A) eloquence has a positive connotation (B) prevarication is speaking in an evasive fashion (C) equivocation means to speak vaguely as to avoid revealing the truth (D) abbreviation is not supported by context (E) discernment is the ability to judge (F) openness is the opposite of the blank

#### 4) The movie is comprised of several vignettes, each presenting a character along with his or her foil: a staid accountant shares an apartment with a ________ musician; a tight-lipped divorcee on a cross-country road trip picks up a ________hitchhiker; and finally, and perhaps most unconvincingly, an introverted mathematician falls in love with a ________ arriviste.

The answers are “colorful”, “garrulous”, and “gregarious”. 'Foil' is an opposite. Therefore each time a person is mentioned we want to come up with a person who exhibits opposite qualities. For instance, in the first blank we have 'staid accountant.' 'Staid' is boring and dull. Thus, the opposite would be (A) colorful. For the second blank, (D) garrulous is the opposite of 'tight-lipped.' Finally, (H) gregarious is the opposite of 'introverted.'

#### 5) Although ________continues on minor points, the ________ themes of the General’s plan have been accepted.

B. On two blank questions, it’s easiest to consider one blank at a time. Attacking the second blank first makes most sense since you know that it is in contrast to minor points (trigger word Although should tip your hand). What is a contrast to a minor point? A major one. You should go look for something like major or important. That eliminates (A) and (C). Into the first blank, debate clearly fits best of the remaining choices, as a debate is more likely to have themes than an agreement or discovery. So, (B) is the answer.

#### 6) Recent advances in research methodologies in neuroscience have created excitement in academic circles and have ________ greater interest in funding new research projects in the field.

The blank is a word that goes along with created excitement, and so it is definitely positive. What is a positive verb that flows with greater interest? Created is a good pre-guess. Check the answer choices, and (D), endangered fits your pre-guess quite well.

#### 7) It comes as no surprise that societies have codes of behavior; the character of the codes, on the other hand, can often be _________ .

The words “on the other hand” indicate that while the existence of societal codes of behavior is no surprise, their character may be quite surprising. Thus the correct answer is Choice B, unexpected, which means the same as surprising. “Predictable” isthe very opposite of surprising, and none of the other answer choices means “surprising.”Thus the correct answer is unexpected (Choice B).

#### 8) Like Béla Bartók, Ruth Crawford not only brought a composer’s acumen to the notation of folk music, she also had a marked (i)___________ the task. This was clear in her agonizing over how far to try to represent the minute details of a performance in a written text, and this (ii)___________makes her work a landmark in ethnomusicology.

In this example, both blanks can be filled by focusing on the statement that Crawford agonized over the details in her representations of folk music performances. The only choice for blank (ii) that matches this description is “fastidiousness”; neither “didacticism” nor “iconoclasm” reflects the notion of agonizing over details. Similarly, only “reverence for” fits in Blank (i), since neither “detachment from” nor “curiosity about” reflects the degree of care Crawford took.

#### 9) For some time now, _________ has been presumed not to exist: the cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom.

The colon indicates that the second part of the sentence will explain the first part. The missing word will describe the opposite of the cynical conviction that “everybody has an angle,” that is, that each person is concerned primarily with his or her own interests. Since “disinterestedness” means lack of self-interest, Choice D is correct. None of the other answer choices means something that is contrasted with or opposed to being primarily concerned with one’s own interests. Thus the correct answer is disinterestedness (Choice D).

#### 10) Choose the opposite of the word: CHANGING

You can get this question correct by the process of elimination. The opposite of changing is unchanging or not changing. You know that lightweight, cautious, delicious, and soft don’t mean not changing, which quickly narrows the answers down to the correct one. Use your roots to define immutable. Im- means not; mut means change. Im-mut-able literally means not changeable, or unchanging.

#### 11) Choose the opposite of the word: OPAQUE

Something opaque isn’t clear or see-through. It blocks the light (op means block or against). Something transparent is clear; it doesn’t block the light. Did you notice that you can eliminate Choices A and D because they’re synonyms of each other? If two words mean the same (or nearly the same) thing, they can’t both be correct and therefore must both be wrong.

#### 12) Choose the opposite of the word: SKEPTICAL

If you’re skeptical, you’re dubious or doubtful. So you’re looking for a word that means not doubtful. Eliminate the words you know — Choices A, B, and C. You can define credulous by using roots and suffixes: cred means trust or belief; -ous means full of or very. Someone credulous is full of trust, and is therefore naive or gullible — just the opposite of skeptical. Effervescent means bubbly. When an Efferdent (a brand-name denture-cleaning tablet) is put into a glass of water, it bubbles.

#### 13) Proponents of urban development oppose the popular notion that social-psychological mechanisms leading to criminal and other antisocial activity are more likely to ________ if ________ such as anonymity and population density are found.

Proponents of urban development would oppose the idea that urban development fosters crime. So the “mechanism” referred to in the sentence might either function, react, or emerge, but not disappear or fail. The sentence cities anonymity and population density as examples of the second missing word. It makes no sense to characterize these examples either as cities or criminals, and of the two remaining choices, choice (B) is weaker than choice (A) on two counts. First, the sentence as a whole does not strongly support the use of the word react; what the mechanisms might react to is neither stated nor inferred in the sentence. Second, while a trait is properly referred to as “found”, a factor is not (factors typically “come into play”). So choice (B) makes for an improper idiomatic expression.

#### 14) The legends of any tribe serve to explain, and even embody, its _________; by examining a people’s most popular _________, one can determine the things they most deeply cherish.

The two parts of the sentence paraphrase the same idea. Therefore, the first blank should correspond to the idea of “the things they most deeply cherish” in the second half of the sentence, while the second blank should correspond to “myths”. The word pair values and stories works well.

#### 15) The recent birth of the septuplets has spawned many newspaper articles presenting ________ accounts of medical problems associated with multiple births, ________ the initial heartwarming stories about the septuplets that dominated the press.

The best word for the second blank must suggest how the articles about “medical problems” related to the “heartwarming stories” that first appeared. It makes sense that sobering accounts would counter-balance heartwarming stories.

#### 16) Opposite of PROFICIENT:

The prefix pro- means “forward, for the purpose of.” The root fic means “to make” or “to do.” Therefore, proficient literally means “doing something in a forward way.” The definition of proficient is “skillful, adept, capable.” The antonym of proficient is, accordingly, awkward, incapable.

#### 17) Opposite of DELUDE:

The prefix de- means “downward, against.” The root lud means “to play (a game) .” Therefore, delude literally means “to play a game against” The definition of delude is “to deceive, to mislead.” The antonym of delude is, accordingly, to guide.

#### 18) Opposite of CIRCUMVENT:

Circum- = around (like a circle); vent = to come; circumvent = to come around. OPPOSITE = to go the straight route.

#### 19) Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. SURGEON: OPERATING ROOM

The relationship sought is one of a professional to the place in which he/she performs his/her professional work. The only answer that has that relationship is that of conductor to symphony hall.

#### 20) Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to that expressed in the original pair. PLEASED: OVERJOYED

The relationship sought is one of an adjective to another adjective that is a stronger form of the first word. The only answer that has that relationship is that of dirty to squalid.

#### 21) The author of the passage cites Rosenblum’s book most likely in order to

As mentioned above, the topic of the passage is the unsatisfactory condition of scholarship devoted to the history of women in photography. Since Rosenblum’s book is clearly presented as an example of this unsatisfactory scholarship, Choice C is the correct answer. Choice D may seem appealing, because a strictly chronological approach might be inadequate to represent the explosive growth of the field in the 1920s. However, the sentence does not develop this idea, and this is not the reason for mentioning Rosenblum.

#### 22) Which of the following statements about Marion Palfi is supported by the passage?

Choice C is correct. Choice A is incorrect: the passage does not state whether the period in which Palfi was working was an era when photography was static or in transition. Choice B is inc orrect: the passage does not state the nature of the subjects Austen photographed, nor compare their relative familiarity to those photographed by Palfi. Choice C is correct: Palfi’s photographs played a role in subsequent events because they served as early evidence of the need for protective legislation.

#### 23) In the context in which it appears, “inflation” (line 2) most nearly means

The term “hobbyist” suggests Austen’s relative lack of seriousness as a photographer when compared with “senior figures,” yet her role has been elevated to that of a “pioneering documentarian” at the expense of these other figures. Choice D may be appealing in that this elevation could be considered a form of distortion, but Choice A is more specific as well as more in line with the dictionary definition of “inflated” as “expanded to an abnormal or unjustifiable volume or level.” Thus, Choice A, “exaggeration,” is the correct answer.

#### 24) In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

The passage presents an argument and the question asks you to identify the role the portions highlighted in boldface play in that argument. The first step in responding is to read through the passage quickly to get an understanding of what is being said. Then it is possible to go back and assess how the parts of the passage fit together into an argument. In this passage the first sentence presents two pieces of information that seem to be in conflict — the atmosphere contained almost no oxygen even though plants were producing so much of it. The second sentence presents a hypothetical explanation that has been proposed for reconciling the discrepancy — that oxygen was absorbed by iron. The next sentence calls this hypothetical explanation inadequate and the following sentence gives a reason for that judgment — that there was insufficient iron for the proposed explanation to work. Finally, the last sentence draws the conclusion that there must have been something in addition to iron to absorb the oxygen. Since the highlighted portions in the passage represent the main content of the third and fourth sentences, the task in this question is to find the answer choice whose two parts fit those sentences’ roles. It can be seen that answer Choice D fits the requirement: the third sentence does sum up the argument’s position about a hypothesis, and the fourth sentence gives grounds for the third. Therefore Choice D is the correct answer.

#### 25) Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the apparent discrepancy presented in the passage?

In this question, you are asked to identify the fact that would best reconcile the apparent discrepancy that the passage presents. The discrepancy is that despite improvements in mountain climbing equipment that have made climbing safer, the incidence of mountain-climbing injuries has greatly increased. Choice A explains how this could have happened — the improvements in equipment have led climbers to attempt feats that are beyond their level of skill. Therefore, Choice A is the correct answer. None of the other choices provides information that resolves the discrepancy. Neither Choice B nor Choice C relates to conditions that have changed over the relevant ten-year period. Choices D and E do relate to the relevant period. But if, as Choice D says, techniques, as well as equipment, have improved, that fact by itself only makes the increase in injuries more puzzling. Choice E provides more data about the consequences of climbing accidents, but doesn’t suggest any explanation for the increase in injuries.

#### 26) An appropriate title for this passage could be:

The correct answer is Choice B because the narrative discusses the origins of watercolor from the use of tempura thousands of years ago.

#### 27) The passage states that:

The correct answer is Choice C because it is stated explicitly in the passage about color and tempura. The other choices are incorrect.

#### 28) The author’s main point is that

The author’s main point in this passage is to set forth the need to investigate the ecological status of Para and the means by which the investigation should proceed.

#### 29) The scientific methodology the author of this passage recommends following is

The author states, “We must compare closely the species found in the district with those of the other contiguous regions.”

#### 30) This passage supports all of the following statements

It is suggested that Guiana and Brazil each have elevated tablelands, which descend to a single river valley, and that Para is located within this valley.

#### 31) Which two of the following numbers have a product that is greater than 60? Choose TWO correct answers.

Please select 2 correct answers

For this type of question, it is often possible to exclude some pairs of answer choices. In this question, the product must be positive, so the only possible products are either (-7)(- 9)= 63 or (6)(8)=48

#### 32) Each employee of a certain company is in either Department X or Department Y, and there are more than twice as many employees in Department X as in Department Y. The average (arithmetic mean) salary is $25,000 for the employees in Department X and is $35,000 for the employees in Department Y. Which of the following amounts could be the average salary for all of the employees in the company? Indicate all such amounts. Choose TWO correct answers.

Please select 2 correct answers

One strategy for answering this kind of question is to find the least and/or greatest possible value. Clearly the average salary is between $25,000 and $35,000, and all of the answer choices are in this interval. Since you are told that there are more employees with the lower average salary, the average salary of all employees must be less than the average of $25,000 and $35,000, which is $30,000. If there were exactly twice as many employees in Department X as in 28 Department Y, then the average salary for all employees would be, to the nearest dollar, the following weighted mean, where the weight for $25,000 is 2 and the weight for $35,000 is 1. Since there are more than twice as many employees in Department X as in Department Y, the actual average salary must be even closer to $25,000 because the weight for $25,000 is greater than 2. This means that $28,333 is the greatest possible average. Among the choices given, the possible values of the average are therefore $26,000 and $28,000. Thus, the correct answer consists of Choices A and B: $26,000 and $28,000. Intuitively, you might expect that any amount between $25,000 and $28,333 is a possible value of the average salary. To see that $26,000 is possible, in the weighted mean above, use the respective weights 9 and 1 instead of 2 and 1. To see that $28,000 is possible, use the respective weights 7 and 3.

#### 33) Suppose you begin reading a book on page h and end on page k. If you read each page completely and the pages are numbered and read consecutively, then how many pages have you read?

Without substitution, this is a hard problem. With substitution, it’s quite easy. Suppose you begin reading on page 1 and stop on page 2. Then you will have read 2 pages. Now, merely substitute h = 1 and k = 2 into the answer-choices to see which one(s) equal 2. Only k – h + 1 = 2 – 1 + 1 = 2 does. (Verify this.) The answer is (E).

#### 34) If m is an even integer, then which of the following is the sum of the next two even integers greater than 4m + 1?

Suppose m = 2, an even integer. Then 4m + 1 = 9, which is odd. Hence, the next even integer greater than 9 is 10. And the next even integer after 10 is 12. Now, 10 + 12 = 22. So look for an answer-choice which equals 22 when m = 2. Begin with choice (A). Since m = 2, 8m + 2 = 18—eliminate (A). Next, 8m + 4 = 20—eliminate (B). Next, 8m + 6 = 22. Hence, the answer is (C).

#### 35) If b-c =2, and a +c =16, then a+b equals?

The correct answer is D. To solve this problem, first recognize that (b-c) +(a +c) =a +b. This is true because the c values cancel each other out, leaving you with b +a, which is equivalent to a +b. Therefore, a +b must equal 2 +16, or 18.

#### 36) Jim’s Hardware store normally sells bulk nails at $1.09 a pound. There is a sale of 3 pounds of nails for $2.19. How much can be saved by purchasing 9 pounds of nails at the sale price?

The first step in solving this problem is to calculate the cost of 9 pounds of nails at the regular price: 9 ($1.09) $9.81 Next, calculate the cost of 9 pounds of nails at the sale price: 3($2.19) $6.57 Finally, subtract $6.57 from $9.81 to get a savings of $3.24.

#### 37) Based solely on the information in the graph, approximately how many hours per week does the average 27-year old spend watching news on television?

To answer the question, determine the height of the News (white) portion of the graph’s right-hand bar.

#### 38) The age group that spends the greatest number of hours per week watching sports on television spends approximately what percent of its total television viewing time watching programming other than news, entertainment, or sports?

The age group that spends the most time per week watching sports on television is the 19–24-year-old group. This group spent an average of approximately 4 out of 18 televisionviewing hours per week watching “other” programming. 4 is approximately 22% of 18.

#### 39) What is the approximate ratio of the average number of hours per week that the youngest age group spends watching televised entertainment to the average number of hours per week that the other two groups combined spend watching the same type of programming?

Your task here is to compare the size of the entertainment portion of the left bar to the combined sizes of the same portion of the other two bars. The first portion is larger than the other two combined, So you’re looking for a ratio that’s greater than 1:1. Eliminate choices (A) and (B). Approximate the height of each of the three portions: 13–18 age group: 25 hours 19–24 age group: 5 hours 25–30 age group: 10 hours The ratio in question is 25:15, or 5:3.

#### 40) Distribution P is given as {22, 1, x}, where x is the median. Distribution Q is given as {x, 0, 3}, where x is the median.

Standard deviation measures the dispersion of numbers around the mean (simple average) of those numbers. The greater the dispersion, the greater the standard deviation. In both sets, the range is 3. If x = 1 2 , the dispersions are the same (Quantity A = Quantity B) because the means would be the same. Otherwise, the dispersions—and the two quantities—differ from each other.

#### 41) M college students agree to rent an apartment for D dollars per month, sharing the rent equally. If the rent is increased by $100, what amount must each student contribute?

The total rent is D + 100, which must be divided by the number of students (M).

#### 42) In the figure above, the centers of all three circles lie on the same line. The radius of the middle-sized circle is twice that of the smallest circle. If the radius of the smallest circle is 1, what is the length of the boundary of the shaded region?

The correct answer is (B). Since the smallest circle has a radius of 1, the middle-sized circle has a radius of 2, and, therefore, the diameter of the large circle must be 6, which makes its radius 3. The arc of a semicircle is half the circle’s circumference—that is, pr. So the length of the boundary of the shaded region is the sum of the arcs of the three semicircles: p + 2p + 3p = 6p.

#### 43) Compare the quantities

Angle 1 and angle 2 are alternate exterior angles, and when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, alternate exterior angles are congruent.

#### 44) If the length of a rectangle is increased by 20%, and the width of the same rectangle is decreased by 20%, then the area of the rectangle

The area of a rectangle is length times width. Let L and W denote the original length and width. Then the new length is 1.2L and the new width is 0.8W. Therefore, the new area is (1.2L)(0.8W) = 0.96LW or 96% of the original area. So the area has decreased by 4%.

#### 45) A right circular cylinder has a volume of 175π cubic units. Both the radius and the height of the cylinder are positive integers. Compare the quantities

Since the volume of the cylinder is 175π cubic units, you can determine that 175π = πr 2 h and 175 = r 2 h. At first it may seem that you cannot determine the value of radius or height, but since both are positive integers, consider the prime factorization of 175 = 5 × 5 × 7 = r 2 h. The radius of the cylinder is 5 and the height is 7.

#### 46) If the distance in miles between cities is shown in the table above, which of the following statements are true? I. Springfield, Fort Wayne, and Toledo lie on a line. ; II. Indianapolis is the midpoint of the line segment connecting Toledo and Springfield. ; III. Indianapolis, Toledo, and Fort Wayne are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.

If three points lie on a line, the distance from the first to the second plus the distance from the second to the third will equal the distance from the first to the third. Reading the distances from the table, you can see that 254 + 89 = 343, so Statement I is true. The distance from Toledo to Springfield is 343. The midpoint of the segment connecting them would be 171.5 miles from each. Indianapolis is 186 miles from Springfield and 183 miles from Toledo, so it is not the midpoint, and Statement II is false. Indianapolis, Toledo, and Fort Wayne are the vertices of a triangle, but the triangle is not equilateral. Its sides measure 89, 183, and 186, so Statement III is not true.

#### 47) The life expectancy for 40-year-old black females exceeds that for 40-year-old white males by

The life expectancy for 40-year-old black females is 78.8, while that for 40-year-old white males is 77.9. So, 78.8 – 77.9 = 0.9 years

#### 48) Life expectancy for 60-year-old females is what percent higher than that for males of the same age?

C Life expectancy for 60-year-old females is 84.0, while that for males of the same age is 80.8. The difference of 84.0 – 80.8 = 3.2 years as a percent of the life expectancy for males is or slightly less than 4%.

#### 49) Eight percent of the people eligible to vote are between 18 and 21. In an election, 85% of those eligible to vote who were between 18 and 21 actually voted. In that election, people between 18 and 21 who actually voted were what percent of those people eligible to vote?

Voters between 18 and 21 who voted were 85% of the 8% of eligible voters. Thus (0.08)(0.85) = 0.068, so people between 18 and 21 who actually voted were 6.8% of the eligible voters.

#### 50) If n and p are both odd numbers, which of the following numbers must be an even number?

Odd numbers are of the form 2.x + 1 where x is an integer. Thus if n = 2x + 1 and p = 2k+ l,then n+p=2.x+1+2k+l =2x+ 2k + 2, which is even. Using n = 3 andp= 5, all the other choices give an odd number. In general, if a problem involves odd or even numbers, try using the fact that odd number are of the form 2x + 1 and even numbers of the form 2y where x and y are integers.

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