# GED Science 3

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#### Battery manufacturers make bold claims about how long their batteries will last. A student wanted to compare the running times of various batteries in order to identify which battery lasts the longest. Using flashlights, the student examined six different batteries, four brand name and two generic. The results show that the battery known as Name Brand A survived the longest, with 101 hours of runtime: /br> It could be argued that this experiment was not carried out in accordance with proper experimental protocol. What must be altered in the experiment to make the results reliable?

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Only one variable can be tested in an experiment. As a result, the type of flashlight used should be the same for each battery tested, as the purpose of the experiment was to put battery producers' claims to the test.

#### A crowbar can be used to pry a nail out of a board. What is the output force of a crowbar with a mechanical advantage of 8 and a force of 40 Newtons applied to it? A tool, mechanical device, or machine system's ability to amplify force is known as its mechanical advantage. The formula for mechanical advantage is as follows:

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The question specifies the mechanical advantage and input force; the first step is to enter these values into the equation:
/br> 8= x/40

Multiply each side by 40 to solve: br> 8 × 40 = x
x = 320

#### What is the mean, in seconds, for all of the cyclists?

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The arithmetic mean, also known as the average, is a way to define the center of a data set. It is calculated by adding the data points of a data set and dividing by the total number of data points in the set. In this case, the data set is the average time, which contains 6 data points. Add the individual times and divide by 6 to calculate the mean time:

Mean = (103 + 110 + 116 + 125 + 116 + 144) ÷ 6
Mean = 714 ÷ 6
Mean = 119

#### The above square is based on the eyes of two parents. One of the parents has brown eyes and possesses the green eye recessive gene (a). How likely is it that a biological child of these parents will have brown eyes?

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The recessive gene for green eyes is allele 'a,' and one parent has brown eyes while simultaneously possessing the recessive green eye allele. This suggests that the dominant gene (A) is responsible for brown eyes. An examination of the square reveals that half of the children will have green eyes (aa) and the other half will have brown eyes (Aa).

#### Which of the following claims is true based on the information in this cladogram?

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The cladogram demonstrates that dinosaurs and crocodiles are linked. They each have an amniotic egg and two post-orbital fenestrae. Amphibians diverged before either of these changes, making them less closely related.

Because primates and sharks are on separate branches of this cladogram, primates did not develop from sharks. The cladogram demonstrates that all of these species' ancestors were vertebrates, although the shark's progenitor did not have a skeletal skeleton. Ray-finned fish diverged prior to the evolution of the amniotic egg.

#### Many people who are concerned about their carbon footprint are excited about the availability of hybrid electric vehicles because these cars are much more efficient in their use of fossil fuels than similarly sized internal combustion automobiles. However, hybrid electric vehicles do come with an environmental price tag because their construction uses rare metals, such as neodymium, lithium, and lanthanum, which also require mining by pumping acids into deep boreholes to dissolve them. Which of the following statements from the paragraph best demonstrates the method by which it consumes gasoline while operating a hybrid electric vehicle?

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According to the statement, hybrid vehicles are "much more efficient in their use of fossil fuels" This implies that they do need certain fossil fuels like gasoline to function.

#### How many calories does someone need to remove from their diet in order to lose weight? First, they should calculate their basal metabolic rate (BMR), which identifies how many calories they burn each day when at complete rest. They can then use an additional formula to factor in their level of activity. There are separate BMR formulas for men and women, and these formulas require three variables: age, height, and current weight. BMR = 655 + (4.35 × W) × (4.7 x H) − (4.7 × A) W = Weight in pounds H = Height in inches A = Age Which of the following, according to the formula, will result in a lower BMR?

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We can see from the equation that the age multiplied by 4.7 will be removed from the BMR. As a result, multiplying a larger amount by 4.7 subtracts more from the BMR, lowering it.

#### Genetically modified crops and livestock have the potential to increase productivity and food quality while reducing pesticide use and increasing earnings for agricultural businesses. Some see them as a means to help eliminate world hunger by improving food output while decreasing losses due to pests and changing environmental circumstances. Industrial agriculture is increasingly reliant on genetically engineered crops. Concerns have been raised concerning the growing usage of genetically modified crops and livestock, including their safety for human consumption and environmental impact. /br>  According to the paragraph, what would be the most serious detrimental impact on humanity if genetically modified crops were banned?

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In accordance to the paragraph, genetically engineered crops have the potential to increase crop productivity. If genetically engineered crops were prohibited, the result would be less food available.

#### Nanometers (nm) are used to measure wavelengths. The wavelength of each hue in the visible spectrum is distinct. The human eye can only perceive wavelengths between 400 and 750 nm. The visible spectrum's approximate wavelengths are indicated: /br> Which color would you refer to if you were reading a scientific study and it mentioned a wavelength of 455 nm?

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By looking at the diagram, you may estimate that blue has a wavelength just above 450, around midway between 400 and 500 nm.

#### A laboratory creates and tests a novel flu vaccine to protect against the influenza virus. During the flu season, the lab administers four doses of the vaccine to 400 men and women between the ages of 18 and 65. Each group comprises 100 people that were chosen at random. The table displays the flu vaccination dosages provided to each participant in the group, as well as the number of people who reported having influenza during the three-month experiment. The laboratory has published research claiming that the new flu vaccination can protect against the influenza virus. However, a competing lab has questioned the findings, arguing that the groups were set up incorrectly. What modifications to the test setup might remove the source of the error?

Correct! Wrong!

The issue with the group arrangement is that there is no control group. A control group is one that is not given any therapy. To evaluate the impact of the treatment, the results of the treated groups should be compared to the results of the control group. The flu vaccine was administered to all four groups in this investigation. A no-dose group should have been included to see how many flu cases happened without the vaccine.

#### Ali is conducting an experiment to determine the effects of watering clover with liquid Vitamin B; one week into her experiment, the average clover plant in her control group is 17.3 millimeters tall. /br> 1 decimeter equates to 100 millimeters br> 1 meter equates to 10 decimeters /br> Convert the following height measurement to meters:

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If you remember that a meter is made up of 1000 millimeters, you can simply divide 17.3 by 1000. You can alternatively make the conversion in two phases using the information provided. To begin, divide.173 by 100 to convert to decimeters. Then, divide the result of decimeters to meters by ten to reach the final value of .0173.

#### The graph depicts a fur seal population on one of the Pribilof Islands, a collection of volcanic islands off the coast of Alaska. Fur seals are thought to have first landed on this island in 1902. The red circles represent population estimates, while the red line represents the population trend line. What is the island's estimated fur seal carrying capacity?

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The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population number of the species that the environment can support permanently, given the availability of food, habitat, water, and other prerequisites. The population trend line in this chart begins to plateau about 10,500, indicating that this is the island's carrying capacity. When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of its ecosystem, it causes a shortage of resources, which leads to an increase in the mortality rate, bringing the population back into balance.

#### What is the median quantity of hurricanes per decade?

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The "median" value in a list of numbers is the "middle" value. To find the median, arrange your data in numerical order from smallest to greatest. First, make a list of how many hurricanes occurred in each decade: 20, 15, 12, 17, 15, 19, 9

Then arrange them as follows:
9, 12, 15, 15, 17, 19, 20

There are seven numerals in total, thus the fourth number is the one in the middle. Because the fourth number is 15, the median is 15.

#### Producers in an ecosystem turn the sun's energy into a viable source for other organisms. Primary consumers consume primary consumers, secondary consumers consume primary consumers, and tertiary consumers consume secondary consumers. Some organisms in the food web consume more than one species of organism. Examine the food chain. Take note that the lion is a scavenger as well as a secondary consumer. As a result, they may play multiple roles in the environment. If more cheetahs were brought into this environment, we would expect to see a decline in the:

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Arrows lead from hares to gazelles to cheetahs. This implies that cheetahs consume hares and gazelles. Adding additional cheetahs would rapidly reduce these populations. Long-term impacts would be more difficult to predict.

#### What is the data set's mode?

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The "mode" is the most often occurring value. In this data set, the number 15 appears twice. Because all other numbers appear just once, the mode is 15.

#### Producers in an ecosystem turn the sun's energy into a viable source for other organisms. Primary consumers consume primary consumers, secondary consumers consume primary consumers, and tertiary consumers consume secondary consumers. Some organisms in the food web consume more than one species of organism. Examine the food chain. Take note that the lion is a scavenger as well as a secondary consumer. As a result, they may play multiple roles in the environment. Which of the following creatures has many roles in this ecosystem?

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The hyena is a primary user of grass, a secondary consumer of zebra, and a scavenger of dead wildebeest.

#### What is the data set's range?

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The difference between the highest and lowest values in a set of data is defined as its range. Because the highest number is 20 and the lowest value is 9, the range is as follows:

20 − 9 = 11

#### Students are investigating families with one brown-haired and one red-haired parent to see how recessive hair-color genes interact with dominant genes. The kids of a heterozygous brown-haired male (Bb) and a homozygous recessive red-haired woman (bb) were researched. Three of their four children have brown hair, while one has red hair. What is the chance that the couple will have another child with brown hair?

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Children with the BB gene will have brown hair, however, no children have this combination of genes.

Children with the Bb gene will have brown hair (since B is dominant), and two out of every four children, or 50%, will have brown hair.

Children with the gene bb have red hair, and two out of every four have red hair.

#### What defines the cell's outer barrier that separates the contents of the cell from the extracellular fluid?

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The complex structure of the plasmalemma, or plasma membrane, is made up of phospholipids, proteins, glycolipids, and cholesterol. The phospholipids divide into two layers, preventing water-soluble substances and dissolved ions from passing through the plasmalemma. Because of this, the plasmalemma is effective at separating the cytoplasm from the fluid environment around it.

#### The advent of hybrid electric vehicles has piqued the interest of many people concerned about their carbon footprint. These vehicles consume far fewer fossil fuels than comparable-sized internal combustion vehicles. However, hybrid electric vehicles have an environmental cost. They are made from rare metals like neodymium, lithium, and lanthanum. Furthermore, mining these elements entails injecting acids into deep boreholes to dissolve the surrounding rock, followed by the removal of the acid and mineral slurry. These extraction procedures are a type of surface mining, which has serious environmental consequences such as erosion, acid mine drainage, water contamination, and habitat damage. What are the environmental trade-offs of hybrid electric vehicles, as stated in the paragraph ?

Correct! Wrong!

It proposes that while employing hybrid electric vehicles benefits the environment by reducing our reliance on fossil fuels, it comes with a cost to the ecosystem due to the harmful methods required for the exploitation of the limited resources required by these vehicles. The section contained this information.