Best Fungus Tips & Advices 2023

Fungus infection

Any of the approximately 144,000 creatures in the kingdom of Fungi include yeasts, rusts, smuts, mildews, molds, and mushrooms considered fungi. Additionally, several fungus-like species do not belong to the kingdom of Fungi but are frequently referred to as fungi, such as slime molds and oomycetes (water molds). The kingdom Chromista has a large number of these fungus-like creatures. 

Fungi are among the most common creatures on Earth and are crucial to the environment and human health. While some fungi live in soil or water freely, others associate with plants or animals in parasitic or symbiotic ways. Five species have been established to group fungus according to how they reproduce sexually. 

However, there are many instances of contentious classification where new genomic information indicates that fungi previously believed to be unrelated are close relations and vice versa.

Chytridiomycosis (Chytrids), the oldest lineage of fungi, is the first of the five species. Most are unicellular, aquatic, and swim with the help of a single flagellum. They frequently prey on insects, plants, and amphibians. Although some members of the Zygomycota (conjugated fungus), which feed mostly on decaying materials, can also operate as insect parasites, molds are the most prevalent form of this group.

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Top 10 Tips and Tricks for Preventing the Growth of Fungus

  1. Recognize and Address

Your home cannot be mold-proof, but you may make it mold-resistant. Inspect your home to identify any trouble spots. It might be as easy as tearing out carpet in a damp basement, setting up mold-resistant goods, or fixing faulty gutters to stop mold from developing or spreading.

  1. Dry Wet Areas

The fungus cannot grow without moisture, so dry up wet spots as soon as possible. Within 24 to 48 hours, any spill on the carpet, collection from a leaky pipe, or seepage into the basement following a severe downpour should all be dry. If you’ve had a flood, remove any furniture, bedding, or carpeting that has water damage if they can’t be scorched. Even routine activities require attention: after a shower, dry the floor and walls, and avoid leaving damp goods around the house. Avoid leaving wet clothing in the washer since mold can quickly spread there. If possible, hang them outside or in well-ventilated rooms to dry.

  1. Proper Ventilation

Your regular household tasks may promote the development of fungus in your house. Ensuring adequate ventilation in your bathroom, kitchen, laundry room, and other high-moisture location can prevent fungus from being attracted even by routine activities like preparing supper, having a shower, or doing a load of laundry. 

  1. Mold-Resistant Products

Use mold-resistant drywall or Sheetrock, mold-resistant paints, and other mold-resistant materials. A gypsum plaster core is squeezed between layers of paper to create traditional drywall. Drywall that resists fungus doesn’t have form since the gypsum core is covered in fiberglass, giving the surface exceptional water resistance. Bathrooms, laundry rooms, basements, and kitchens are some spaces that benefit significantly from moisture-resistant drywall. 

  1. Indoor Humidity

The EPA advises maintaining indoor humidity levels between 30 and 60%. A moisture meter available at your neighborhood hardware shop can measure humidity. You can also spot high moisture in your home by focusing on probable trouble spots. Condensation on windows, pipes, and walls is a warning indication of excessive humidity. If you see condensation, dry the area immediately and deal with the moisture problem.

  1. Keep Water Flowing

Water may collect nearby and leak into your basement or crawlspace if the ground around your home isn’t appropriately sloped away from the foundation.

  1. Fix Roof Gutters

A simple roof leak caused by overflowing or damaged gutters could be the root of a fungus issue. Maintain frequent gutter cleanings and damage inspections on your roof. Inspect them after storms for water stains that can point to leaks and fix them as necessary.

  1. Better Airflow

The EPA claims that as temperatures drop, the amount of moisture that the air can contain decreases. Without adequate airflow, that extra moisture may start to show up on your walls, windows, and floors. Open closet doors that may be colder than the rooms they are in, move furniture away from walls, and open doors between rooms to improve circulation. To minimize moisture and prevent mold growth, let fresh air come.

  1. Prevent Fungus from Plants

They are lovely and clean your home’s air, but fungus adores them. Mold can thrive in indoor plants’ damp soil, spreading to other parts of your home. Try putting a little Taheebo tea in the water you give your houseplants rather than getting rid of them. This tree’s oil, which resists fungi even in rainforests, is available at natural food stores and aids in preventing mold growth in plant soil.

  1. Familiarize with Climate

Finally, please familiarize yourself with your area’s climate, whether it be the cold and dry West, the hot and dry Southwest, the hot and wet South, or the cold and dry Northeast, and how it reacts to rainfall. When it comes to mold prevention, there is no universally effective method. The first step is understanding what works best for your area’s climate and house.

Fungus Questions and Answers

Approximately the size of a tuna can, fill a shallow container with 1/4 inch of apple cider vinegar, a few drops of dish soap, and plastic wrap. Make a few holes in the plastic wrap’s top that are big enough for fungus gnats to pass through.

All microscopic fungi species, known as molds, grow as multicellular filaments known as hyphae.

  • Reduction in thickness The nail often becomes thicker because of fungal nails.
  • Claret in color. Often, as the fungus spreads and disappears, the color of the nail that indicates it (yellow, black, brown, etc.) will start to fade.
  • Delineation. A clear nail should eventually appear at the base of the nail bed as the yellowing of the nail is supposed to eventually be contained to the area where it is growing out.

Under the tip of your fingernail or toenail, it starts as a white or yellow-brown spot. The nail may turn discolored, thicken, and crumble at the edge as the fungal infection spreads deeper. 

Black fungus, also referred to as mucormycosis, is an uncommon but harmful infection. It is brought on by a class of molds known as mucormycetes and frequently impacts the sinuses, lungs, skin, and brain. The mold spores can be inhaled or contacted through soil, bread or produce that has spoiled, compost piles, or other objects.

You can drench soil in hydrogen peroxide (the typical topical variety, 3% strength). Pour a solution of one part hydrogen peroxide to four parts water through the soil in the root zone of the pot until it starts to emerge from the bottom. On contact, fungus gnat larvae are killed by the peroxide.

Your doctor might suggest an antifungal cream like efinaconazole (Jublia) or tavaborole (Kerydin).

Despite the fact that fungal nail infections are not life-threatening, they are a significant health issue due to their high prevalence and poor therapeutic response.

A moss is not an algae or a fungus. Instead, it belongs to the kingdom of Plantae’s Bryophyta division of plants.

Yes, many types of toenail fungi, including tinea unguium, are quite contagious.

  • Use a tea tree and orange oil rub To treat toenail fungus, apply a solution of 1 teaspoon tea tree oil, 1/2 teaspoon orange oil, and 1/2 teaspoon grapeseed or olive oil to the toenails with a cotton ball.
  • Apply coconut oil to your feet. Apply coconut oil to the infected toenail while wearing gloves. Even your entire foot can be covered in coconut oil to leave your skin supple and well-nourished. As a toenail fungus treatment, a thin layer applied two to three times per day is very effective.
  • Baking soda and vinegar are good foot soaks. You can stop fungus from thriving or growing by adding one cup of white vinegar, apple cider vinegar, and five tablespoons of baking soda to a water bath.
  • Olive Tree Extract The antibacterial and antiviral properties of this extract make it extremely effective. This product also offers many other health advantages and lowers cholesterol exceptionally well.
  • Oregano Oil To get rid of toenail fungus, combine a few drops of oregano oil with carrier oil. Due to its anti-fungal properties, dab some onto the infected toenails daily to help clear up your toes.

Just two teaspoons of baking soda should be added to a gallon of water, and it should be thoroughly dissolved. Around a fungal infestation, apply the mixture to the mulch and let it soak in.

Given that they cannot bite humans and cannot transmit diseases, fungus gnats are completely safe to be around.

  • Use a solution of water and hydrogen peroxide.
  • Let the potting soil air dry.
  •  Pot the plant again or change the soil.
  • To draw and capture fungus gnats, use yellow sticky cards. Insecticides should be added to the potting soil.
  • Apply a biological pesticide.

You can eliminate them by pulling out the mushrooms or using bleach or lime to kill them.

Mushrooms are fungi.

Fungi and bacteria belong to separate categories. Since they are “eukaryotes,” they have cells. Fungi are the pathogens that resemble animals the most out of the three.

An oral antifungal called griseofulvin is one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for treating scalp fungal infections.

Fungal infections with the potential to spread to the bone are a very serious condition. In the end, it is important to take care of toenail fungus as soon as you notice it because it can spread internally to other body parts.

Fungi and viruses can be eliminated by rubbing alcohol.

Including fungus gnats, neem oil is an all-natural, non-toxic insecticide that kills many pests on contact.

Given that they cannot bite humans and cannot transmit diseases, fungus gnats are completely safe to be around.

Cutting the portion of the nail that has come loose, keeping the nails dry, and avoiding trauma to the area are all part of therapy. Most patients will be cured by topical antibiotics, such as bacitracin or polymyxin B, if used twice daily for one to four months.

Many gardeners have demonstrated that baking soda works well to treat powdery mildew. Add 1 quart of water to 1 teaspoon of baking soda. Thoroughly mist plants because the solution only kills the fungus that comes into contact with it. A further efficient home remedy is milk spray.

Warts are minuscule skin infections brought on by human papillomavirus (HPV) family viruses.

The fungus that causes an athlete’s foot is not killed by Epsom salt, claims the Epsom Salt Council. However, it might aid in drawing out moisture, which lessens the environment’s appeal to fungus.

Tea tree oil is highly effective against many bacteria, viruses, and fungi, including yeasts and dermatophytes.

  • Refrain from over-watering and offer adequate drainage. 
  • Dry the soil surface on the container between waterings.
  • Eliminate any plumbing or irrigation system leaks, and remove any standing water.

Toenail fungus cannot be treated or prevented with bleach. Even in highly diluted form, bleach should never be applied to the skin unless a doctor advises.

Fungi are members of the kingdom Fungi, whereas algae are Protista.

Small flies called fungus gnats are pests that attack soil, potting soil, other container materials, and other sources of organic decay.

Although it promotes blood flow, it is dangerous to the stability and development of the embryo.

The mild heat eliminates the fungus without harming the nearby skin and nails. The fungus vanishes over time.

Vinegar is accessible, affordable, and efficient at killing bacteria, fungi, and other microbes.

Strong antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B, itraconazole, or voriconazole, are necessary for the treatment of fungus in lungs.

Vinegar is a tried-and-true method for removing mold and bothersome white spots on your plants. Spray the infected leaves and stems with a solution of a quart of water and two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar. Repeat several times daily until all mold is eliminated.

Malassezia globosa, a fungus that occurs naturally, is what causes dandruff but is not dandruff itself. This fungus breaks down sebum, an oil found on your scalp, causing dandruff. Oleic acid, which 1 in 2 people worldwide is sensitive to.

Lichens are both plants and fungi, making them a hybrid.

Psoriasis is an autoimmune condition.

  • Multicellular filamentous moulds.
  • Macroscopic filamentous fungi that form large fruiting bodies. Sometimes the group is referred to as ‘mushrooms’.
  • Single celled microscopic yeasts.

Compost, mulch, and dirt are examples of moist organic materials where fungus gnats lay their eggs. The larvae eat algae, fungi, and decaying matter found in the soil after hatching. They feed for about two weeks before pupating and emerging as fully grown flying pests.

Acne, bacterial, fungal, and viral skin infections  (such as herpes simplex, shingles, or chickenpox)should neither be treated nor treated with clobetasol propionate.

You can get a pedicure at any nail salon regardless of your condition. However, it is advised that you see a doctor first before getting a pedicure. Additionally, so that they can determine a course of action, you should inform the nail specialist that you have onychomycosis.

Fungus Clear is not recommended because there is no proof that it is beneficial for treating topical fungus.

The cell wall is a structural feature of fungus that is made up primarily of glucans, chitin, and glycoproteins.

For best results, soak the affected toes in diluted hydrogen peroxide for 30 minutes each day for a few weeks.

The plague, inc. fungus, can be quite resistant to many treatments, so there isn’t one surefire way to eradicate it. However, here are some suggestions for overcoming it:

  • Use antibiotics as soon as possible before the fungus has a chance to spread too widely.
  • Upgrading your hospital and laboratories so you can discover stronger antibiotics and other treatments more quickly.
  • Prioritizing the most contaminated nations to stop the disease’s spread.
  • Avoid human-to-human contact with animals whenever possible to prevent the spread of disease.
  • Try over-the-counter antifungal creams and ointments for your nails. There are numerous products, including terbinafine (Lamisil). If you see white spots on your nails, file them off, soak them in water, dry them, and then apply the prescription cream or lotion. Even if this eliminates your symptoms, the infection is likely to return. 
  • Cut the nails short and thin. Releasing pressure from the nails this aids in pain reduction. Additionally, the antifungal will be able to penetrate deeper layers of the nail if you do this before applying it.

In a bucket of warm water, stir in a half-ounce of carrier oil and five drops of tea tree oil before soaking your feet for 20 minutes.

  • Water when expected If you water your lawn too frequently, you risk getting brown patches, which happen when the soil is dry underneath a wet surface.
  • Cut tall Because your lawn grows so quickly in the summer, it can be tempting to cut it short. However, if your grass becomes overgrown, the sun won’t be able to penetrate the top and disperse heat and moisture. 
  • Lessen dense thatch Try aerating your lawn in the late summer or early fall to lessen thatch. Thousands of tiny soil plugs must be removed during the aeration process for the soil to be able to absorb water.
  • Use proper fertilization When treating your lawn, using the right fertilizer mixture is important. Nitrogen can make brown patches stronger than your turf because fungus reacts to it like grass.
  • Check the drainage. We advise that you aerate your lawn twice a year—once in the spring and once in the fall—to prevent soil compaction.
  • Use fungicide. Consider applying a fungicide to the affected areas of your lawn for quick results. If the products are used correctly, they can produce more immediate results and are most effective at the earliest signs of brown patch fungus.
  • Keep a thriving lawn It will be simpler to prevent brown patches the healthier your lawn is in the beginning. Give your grass the nutrients and protection it needs to thrive all year long by giving it regular watering, mowing, fertilizing, and weed control.

The first factor that distinguishes fungi from plants: the absence of chloroplasts.

The good news is that while artillery fungus is an eyesore and a nuisance, it poses no risk to people or animals, doesn’t wilt garden plants, and doesn’t wreak structural havoc on surfaces where it lands.

A fungus is not cancer.

Since there is no conclusive answer, there is some disagreement over whether or not eczema is a fungus. Others think eczema is just an inflammatory skin condition, while some claim a fungus brings it on. The two schools of thought do share some similarities, though. For instance, eczema is frequently treated with both antifungal and anti-inflammatory medications. Additionally, bacterial and fungal infections can cause flare-ups of eczema. So it’s possible that fungi and inflammation both contribute to eczema.

All microscopic fungi, known as molds, grow as multicellular filaments known as hyphae.

Superficial fungal skin disease is known as seborrheic dermatitis, which affects regions with a high concentration of sebaceous glands.

The term “reproductive hypha” refers to the reproductive hypha of a specific fungus. This hypha may be branched or unbranched and is typically longer and thicker than other hyphae in the same fungus specimen. Its main objective is to produce spores, which are then released into the atmosphere to start new fungi colonies.

They are spread inside homes by bare feet coming into contact with bathroom floors, bath mats, and other common areas.

You can soak your feet in a solution of warm water and ACV for about 15 minutes, twice daily, if you want to use it to treat your fungal infection.

It will exterminate adult fungus gnats and the larvae found in potted plants.

Iodine can kill bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms like amoebas and lower thyroid hormones.

Lysol kills 99.9% of bacteria and fungi, assisting in the management of mold and mildew growth, eliminating odors, and preventing seasonal colds, flu, and allergies.

Mold, fungus, bacteria, and viruses have all been killed by ultraviolet (UV) light since the dawn of time.

Generally speaking, most microscopic—or smaller—fungi have a diameter of 2 to 10 micrometers (MGRm) and a length of several tenths of an inch.

Antifungal drugs can be used to treat scalp fungus.

By applying bone meal to a fungus positioned on the corresponding nylium, warped trees can be grown.

  • Always keep your nails dry and clean. Regularly wash your hands and feet.
  • Always keep your nails short.
  • Change your socks frequently throughout the day or wear absorbent socks.
  • Opt for footwear made of breathable materials. 
  • Discard worn-out footwear or treat it with antifungal or disinfectant powders.
  • Put on shoes when entering locker rooms and pool areas.
  • Pick a nail salon that gives each client a manicure with clean instruments. Or sterilize the equipment you use for at-home pedicures.
  • Stop using artificial nails and nail polish.
  • Use an antifungal product to treat athlete’s foot if you have it.

For 14 days, use this shampoo once daily. Apply 2 to 3 inches around the spots and the skin’s affected areas.

Black knot disease poses no threat to people.

Fungal nail infection is usually not painful until it gets bad.

Hibiclens’ main ingredient, chlorhexidine, is a proven broad-spectrum antiseptic skin cleanser that works well against various bacteria, fungi, viruses, and yeast.

Repotting the plant, removing dead stems and leaves, and using a natural fungicide are the ways to get rid of the yellow fungus.

Baking soda and water can be used to soak your thick, yellow toenails and treat fungal infections

Flip flops or sandals can prevent the condition from getting worse. If you must go barefoot, consider putting on socks to protect any injured areas. To conceal the issue, you can also paint nail polish on the troublesome nails.

Per square foot of soil, scatter or spread 1/2 cup of Mosquito Bits granules. Water as you normally would. The Bti will be released into the soil during watering, where it will be consumed by and kill the Fungus Gnat larvae. Repeat applications every three weeks to maintain control.

Eukaryotes, which are made up of eukaryotic cells, include animals, plants, fungi, and protists.

Cheese is not a fungus.

Fungus Eliminator effectively and permanently gets rid of fungus from your nails.

Mistletoe bears actual flowers and seeds, unlike a fungus that only produces spores.

There are no known toxicities or unintended side effects from consuming white fungus.

The essential oil with many therapeutic uses is tea tree oil. Tea tree oil has antifungal and antiseptic qualities and healing benefits, which may make it a successful treatment for nail fungus.

Black fungus should not be taken by patients taking medications for blood disorders because it may prevent blood clotting. Pregnant or nursing women should not consume this fungus because it may harm the unborn child.

Fungus gnats can be effectively controlled with cinnamon powder.

Vicks VapoRub was found to have a “positive clinical effect” in treating toenail fungus, according to a 2011 study.

Before trimming your toenails, soak your feet in warm water with Epsom salts for about 20 minutes to help soften the nails and make them simpler to cut. Before cutting your nails, gently file down any jagged edges with a nail file or an emery board. Ingrown toenails can be avoided by cutting your toenails straight across rather than into the corners. See a podiatrist for treatment if you have fungus or other infection under your nails.

The quickest method for removing dog vomit fungus is to combine three parts of water with one part of hydrogen peroxide. Spray the remedy on the affected area, then wait 15 minutes before removing it. Use cool water to rinse the area, then pat it dry. Using a fungicide to treat the area is another option, but carefully read the label.

  • Use enough nitrogen fertilizer. 
  • Take out any thatch growth. 
  • Adjust your irrigation schedule.
  • Regularly mow the grass.
  • Water deeply and less frequently to encourage a strong root system ‣ Use fungicides to help stop new infections as you implement corrective cultural practices.

Particularly in forests, fungi play a key role in decomposition.

Yeasts, molds, mushrooms, and other living organisms are considered fungi.

For instance, Cordyceps fungi feed on insects and other small animals, growing inside of them until they die. Some fungi parasitize plants and spread diseases like “powdery mildew.” So, while some fungi are undoubtedly parasitic, not all of them are.

  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Stomach pain
  • Constipation
  • Heartburn

Bleeding Tooth Fungus

Because they are “tooth” fungi and the mushroom oozes a thick fluid resembling blood, they are known as bleeding tooth fungus. Despite its look, the fungus is not harmful and may offer several health advantages. When grown, bleeding tooth fungus mushrooms are harmless. They grow into ordinary brown mushrooms that are fairly boring in appearance. It would be helpful if you kept an eye out for the kids. Devil’s teeth are another common term for fungus, but strawberries and cream are friendlier.

Tree Fungus

Trees are susceptible to deadly fungi diseases. The fungi can cause a tree to fall apart by destroying its structural integrity. Additionally, fungi can attack leaves, which damages a tree’s capacity to produce food through photosynthesis. Any diseased tree can turn harmful over time if a fungus breaks down its strength.

Fungus Eliminator

Grass Fungus

The soil often contains dormant dangerous bacteria and lawn fungi that can spread disease. Just the perfect circumstances must exist for the lawn illness to manifest itself. They stalk your territory like quiet adversaries, waiting for the ideal opportunity to strike, usually when it’s under pressure. Fungus is a disease caused by temperature and weather variations, prolonged periods of dampness from poor irrigation, slopes, or uneven terrain. High temperatures can make the grass more susceptible to diseases because they weaken its defenses against infections. Wet and sticky weather conditions encourage mushrooms to spread rapidly throughout your grass.

Foot Fungus Cream

The phrase “foot fungus” refers to superficial foot fungal diseases. The skin, hair, and nails’ outer layers may become infected. The foot fungal illnesses, tinea pedis, and onychomycosis are two of the most prevalent.

The following list is the most effective cream for fungus infections:

  1. Lamisil AT Cream
  2. Daktacort Hydrocortisone Cream
  3. Canesten Bifonazole 
  4. Daktarin Intensive Cream
  5. Clotrimazole 1% Cream

Mulch Fungus

Fungi are living organisms that emerge from natural decomposition; mulch does not directly cause fungus, but mulch and fungus cooperate when specific conditions are met. The mulch’s accelerated decomposition by fungus increases soil fertility by increasing the availability of nutrients to other plants. Additionally, improving the soil’s ability to retain water is decomposed mulch.

Snow Fungus

A member of the Tremellaceae family, the white fungus is an edible mushroom. It is also recognized as snow fungus, silver ear, snow ear, white wood ear, and white jelly mushroom due to its unusual qualities and the fact that it generally grows clinging to fallen branches of broad-leaved trees. Its hue ranges from white to pale yellow, and it has a shape similar to underwater coral thanks to its soft, nearly translucent jelly-like texture.

Noita Mystery Fungus

With the added peculiarity that it will quickly transform a variety of different liquids and powders into more of itself, Mystery Fungus behaves very similarly to Weird Fungus, including the effects of consuming it. Sand, toxic sludge, and fungus blood can be combined. In the Fungal Caverns, a peculiar pink substance is known as Weird Fungus. Although it is fairly traversable, the lack of air makes it dangerous to stay within for an extended period. In contrast to other materials, it will gradually grow vertically, generating typically thin columns.

Warped Fungus

A new variety of fungus called Warped Fungus was included in the 1.16 Nether Update. Crimson Forests and Warped Forests are where it most frequently generates. Additionally, Bastion Remnant chests contain it. Allium is affected by BoneMeal, which causes Warped Fungus to appear. Both varieties of nylium can support the growth of Warped fungi. However, Warped Fungus prefers to grow on Warped Nylium. Warped Fungus turns into Huge Warped Fungus when Bonemeal is applied to it while it is still on Warped Nylium.

Yellow Fungus

A dangerous fungal illness, yellow fungus disease can prove fatal if not treated swiftly when it first appears. People may get it if their immune systems have been compromised by the coronavirus (COVID-19), a viral infection, immunodeficiency disorders, cancer, a chronic sickness, another medical condition, or if they take immunosuppressive medications to treat illness. If it isn’t treated at the earliest possible time, 60 to 80 percent of patients could die from it. The environment is filled with airborne yellow fungus infections brought on by fungi and molds, especially in rotting food and feces. The fungus spread can be stopped by properly disposing of used food and feces.

Fungus Moss

Moss is not a fungus, even though the two are sometimes mistaken. It differs greatly from fungi because it is a plant member of the bryophyte family. Like mosses, fungi can be found in various habitats and ecosystems, such as freezing arctic tundras, tropical rainforests, oceans, lakes, and rivers. Their sizes can greatly vary from minuscule to occasionally exceeding a thousand acres. Like mosses, fungi are abundant on our planet and come in various species.

Fungus Ball

A fungal ball is a noninvasive dense concentration of fungal hyphae that usually occurs in a single maxillary sinus. However, the process has been described to involve other and multiple sinuses much less commonly. Several other words, such as mycetoma, aspergilloma, and chronic noninvasive granuloma, have been used in the past, but more recent publications have moved to standardize the term as fungus ball.

Fungus Amongus

The American rock band Incubus’ first studio album, Fungus Amongus, was published by Stopuglynailfungus Music On Chillum, their indie label, on November 1, 1995. On November 7, 2000, it was re-released under the Epic/Immortal banner due to demand. Style-wise, the album is influenced by funk metal bands like Mr. Bungle, Primus, and Red Hot Chili Peppers, all listed in the liner notes. On tracks like “Psychopsilocybin,” “Trouble in 421,” “Speak Free,” and “Take Me to Your Leader,” Brandon can be heard rapping in the group’s quasi-rap style, which carried over to S.C.I.E.N.C.E.

Fungus Hyphae

Hyphae are multicellular fungi’s tube projections that form a filamentous network (mycelium). Fungal hyphae release digestive enzymes to absorb nutrients from food sources. Certain fungal species may create symbiotic relationships with plants, in which both species benefit (mutualism). The hyphae penetrate the plant’s root tissue in response to chemical exudates produced by both plant and fungus. The hyphae create arbuscular projections within the cortical cells of the root, which receive nutrients from the plant cells. In return, the fungus transfers minerals absorbed from the soil into the plant, so both species benefit from the interaction.

Wood Fungus

A wood-decaying or xylophagous fungus is any fungus that digests damp wood and causes it to decompose. Some wood-decay fungi, such as brown rot, attack dead wood, whereas others, such as Armillaria (honey fungus), are parasitic and invade living trees. Excessive moisture above the fiber saturation point in wood is required for fungal colonization and proliferation. Lignicolous fungi have fungi that not only grow on wood but also permeate its fibrous structure and cause decay. In nature, this mechanism causes complicated molecules to break down and returns nutrients to the soil.