FREE Ultimate PANRE Question and Answers
Which medication has the strongest evidence connecting it to aplastic anemia?
Aplastic anemia could result from carbamazepine. When the precursors of blood cells are lost, aplastic anemia develops. In most cases, the etiology is unknown, however drugs, chemicals, and radiation have all been connected to the illness (benzene, certain antineoplastics, antibiotics, NSAIDS, and anticonvulsants). Both an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, carbamazepine is used. Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that is only occasionally used and has been linked to aplastic anemia.
Which of the following diuretics inhibits chloride reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henie while treating hypertension?
Diuretics boost urine production. As a loop diuretic known to cause hypokalemia, furosemide is dangerous. Triamterene and spironolactone are potassium-sparing diuretics, meaning they work by increasing sodium excretion and holding onto potassium in the distal tubule. Bicarbonate reabsorption from the renal tubule is decreased by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide.
What is regarded as the initial course of treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
The majority of cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are hereditary and congenital. Patients may feel a sudden death as well as chest discomfort, syncope, and shortness of breath. The diagnosis is made via echocardiography. Beta-blockers improve ventricular diastolic function by reducing heart rate, which lengthens the diastolic filling period. Reduced chamber size and a worsening of the disease are caused by nitrates, diuretics, and ACE inhibitors. Arrhythmias can develop and outflow blockage is made worse by inotropes such digitalis.
Which of the following does NOT indicate that you have Cushing syndrome?
Adrenal hormone overproduction causes Cushing syndrome. Changes in protein and fat metabolism are the cause of central obesity, "moon face," and thin skin with striae. Aside from irregular periods and infertility, patients with Cushing syndrome also experience excessive hair growth (hirsutism) brought on by abnormalities in sex hormones.
Which of the following ailments needs care the most right away?
Peritonsillar abscess has the potential to be the most dangerous of the conditions mentioned. When germs in the throat spread to the soft tissues, it may happen. Patients could exhibit drooling, a painful throat, a "hot potato" voice, trouble swallowing, or a fever. The abscess will need to be drained after the diagnosis was made via needle aspiration. A hospital stay might be necessary. A chalazion is an eyelid swelling brought on by a blocked meibomian gland; it may go away on its own with time. The gradual inversion of the eyelid known as entropion is most frequently observed in older persons. Aphthous ulcers are also referred to as oral canker sores.
Which of the following people at average risk, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), needs to get a Pap smear right away?
No matter when the patient first began having sexual relations, the ACOG advises starting cervical cancer screening at age 21. Every three years, women between the ages of 21 and 29 should have cytology (Pap smear) screening. Cytology screenings for women between the ages of 30 and 65 can be done every three years, or every five years with cytology plus HPV testing. If a woman over 65 has had three consecutive normal cytology tests and no abnormal results in the previous ten years, she can quit screening.
Which of the following methods of transmission of hepatitis C is most frequent?
High-risk behaviors such as IV drug use, getting tattooed or having a body piercing done with unsanitary instruments frequently result in the transmission of the hepatitis C virus through the blood. Breastfeeding and sexual transmission are comparatively uncommon. Hepatitis B is typically spread by blood and intercourse. The main method of hepatitis A transmission is fecal-oral contact.