FREE TIA Pharmacology Questions and Answers

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Which of the following routes have the highest bioavailability?

Correct! Wrong!

The intravenous (IV) route has the highest bioavailability compared to the other routes mentioned. When a drug is administered intravenously, it is directly injected into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system and any potential barriers to absorption. This allows for the drug to be rapidly and completely absorbed, resulting in a higher bioavailability. In contrast, oral, intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes may have lower bioavailability due to factors such as incomplete absorption, first-pass metabolism, or slower absorption rates.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using oral drugs

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The first pass effect refers to the metabolism of a drug in the liver before it reaches systemic circulation, which can result in a significant reduction in the drug's bioavailability. This means that a smaller amount of the drug will be available to produce its intended effect. Low bioavailability refers to the percentage of the drug that actually reaches systemic circulation unchanged. Both of these factors can limit the effectiveness of oral drugs compared to other routes of administration.

What is the entry of drugs into the plasma?

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Absorption refers to the process by which drugs enter the bloodstream from the site of administration. It involves the movement of drugs across biological barriers, such as the gastrointestinal tract or the skin, and their subsequent entry into the plasma. Once in the plasma, drugs can then be distributed to various tissues and organs, metabolized by the body's enzymes, and eliminated from the body. Therefore, the entry of drugs into the plasma is correctly described as absorption.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of IM administration?

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The disadvantage of IM (intramuscular) administration is that it can affect lab tests and it can be painful. IM administration involves injecting medication into the muscle, which can cause discomfort and pain. Additionally, the injection site can sometimes interfere with certain lab tests, leading to inaccurate results.

What describes the action of a drug on the body?

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Pharmacodynamics refers to the study of how a drug interacts with the body and produces its effects. It involves understanding the mechanisms of action, the biochemical and physiological effects, and the relationship between drug concentration and its effect on the body. This includes studying the drug-receptor interactions, signal transduction pathways, and the overall impact on the body's functions. Therefore, pharmacodynamics accurately describes the action of a drug on the body.

Which of the following are poorly perfused tissues?

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All of the listed tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidneys) are well perfused, meaning they receive an adequate blood supply. The term "poorly perfused" refers to tissues that do not receive enough blood flow, which can lead to inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery. Therefore, the answer is "none of the above" as none of the listed tissues are poorly perfused.

What describes the action of the body on the drug?

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Pharmacokinetics refers to the study of how the body affects a drug, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. It focuses on understanding how the drug moves through the body and is processed, which can influence its effectiveness and safety. This includes factors such as how the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, how it is distributed to different tissues and organs, how it is metabolized or broken down, and how it is eliminated from the body. Therefore, pharmacokinetics accurately describes the action of the body on the drug.

What is the fraction of unchanged drugs reaching systemic circulation?

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Bioavailability refers to the fraction of an unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation after administration. It is a measure of the extent and rate at which a drug is absorbed and becomes available at the site of action. Factors such as metabolism, drug displacement, and volume of distribution can affect bioavailability. Therefore, the correct answer is bioavailability.

Which of the following is an advantage of sublingual administration?

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Sublingual administration has several advantages. Firstly, it allows for rapid absorption of the medication into the bloodstream as the sublingual mucosa has a rich blood supply. Additionally, it is a convenient method as it does not require swallowing or the use of needles. Sublingual administration also bypasses the harsh gastrointestinal (GI) environment, which can degrade some medications. Lastly, it avoids first-pass metabolism, where the medication is partially metabolized by the liver before reaching systemic circulation. Therefore, all of the given options are advantages of sublingual administration.

Where are large fenestrations or slit junctions located?

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Large fenestrations or slit junctions are located in the liver. These structures are found in the endothelial cells lining the liver sinusoids, which are specialized blood vessels in the liver. The presence of fenestrations allows for the exchange of substances between the blood and the liver cells, facilitating the filtration and processing of blood in the liver. This unique feature of the liver plays a crucial role in its functions, such as detoxification, metabolism, and nutrient storage.

Which of the following are well-perfused tissues?

Correct! Wrong!

The brain is a well-perfused tissue because it has a rich blood supply. This is necessary for the brain to receive a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, as well as to remove waste products. The brain requires a high amount of energy and oxygen to function properly, and its blood vessels ensure that these requirements are met.

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