FREE PALS Tachycardia Questions and Answers


Which drug is suggested as a first line of treatment for supraventricular tachycardia?

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Adenosine is commonly used as a first-line treatment for terminating supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). It works by temporarily blocking conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node, interrupting the re-entry pathway responsible for SVT. Adenosine is administered rapidly via intravenous (IV) bolus followed by a saline flush to ensure it reaches the heart quickly. Its short half-life allows for rapid termination of the arrhythmia and can help restore normal sinus rhythm. Epinephrine, atropine, and procainamide are not typically used as first-line agents for SVT.

What is the typical duration of the QRS in pediatric patients?

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The correct answer is: Less than or equal to 0.09 seconds.

In pediatric patients, the typical duration of the QRS complex on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is less than or equal to 0.09 seconds. This measurement represents the time it takes for depolarization to spread through the ventricles of the heart. It's important to note that this value may vary slightly depending on the specific age and size of the child, but generally, a QRS duration of less than or equal to 0.09 seconds is considered normal in pediatric patients.

Which of the following arrhythmias would be indicated by typical sawtooth P-wave activity on the ECG monitor, using the ILCOR PALS Provider Manual?

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The correct answer is "Atrial flutter."

Atrial flutter is characterized by typical sawtooth P-wave activity on the ECG monitor. These P-waves, often referred to as "F-waves" due to their flutter appearance, are rapid and regular. This distinctive pattern of atrial activity is a hallmark feature of atrial flutter and helps differentiate it from other arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, sinus tachycardia, and supraventricular tachycardia.

In order to simulate a right tension pneumothorax, where should the needle go?

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To simulate a right tension pneumothorax in a medical simulation scenario, a needle should be inserted into the 2nd intercostal space on the affected side, which is to the right of the mediastinum. This procedure, known as needle decompression, is performed to relieve pressure within the pleural space and alleviate tension pneumothorax.

When a narrow QRS complex is present in both stable and unstable sinus tachycardia situations, what is the most crucial intervention?

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The correct answer is "Identify and treat the underlying cause."

In cases of stable or unstable sinus tachycardia with a narrow QRS complex, the most crucial intervention is to identify and address the underlying cause of the tachycardia. While obtaining a 12-lead ECG, monitoring blood pressure and pulse oximetry, and providing oxygen therapy are important supportive measures, they do not address the root cause of the sinus tachycardia.

Identifying and treating the underlying cause, whether it be pain, fever, dehydration, hypovolemia, or another condition, is essential for resolving the tachycardia and preventing further complications. Therefore, this intervention takes precedence in managing sinus tachycardia with a narrow QRS complex.

Which of these imbalances in electrolytes wouldn't cause ventricular tachycardia?

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Among the imbalances in electrolytes listed, hyponatremia is less likely to directly cause ventricular tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia is typically associated with electrolyte imbalances such as hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperkalemia.

Which tachyarrhythmia is most likely to impair a baby's cardiovascular health during infancy?

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Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is indeed the tachyarrhythmia most likely to impair a baby's cardiovascular health during infancy. SVT refers to a rapid heart rhythm originating above the ventricles, often in the atria. In infants, SVT can lead to significant hemodynamic instability, compromising cardiac output and perfusion to vital organs. This can result in symptoms such as poor feeding, lethargy, and respiratory distress. Prompt recognition and treatment of SVT are essential to prevent complications and optimize cardiovascular health in infants.

If untreated tachyarrhythmias go untreated for an extended length of time, they may eventually result in congestive heart failure (CHF). Of the following, which one would not be a marker of CHF in infancy?

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The correct answer is "Sunken fontanel."

Congestive heart failure (CHF) in infancy can present with various symptoms, but a sunken fontanel (the soft spot on the top of a baby's head) is not typically associated with CHF. The fontanel may be sunken in cases of dehydration but is not a direct marker of CHF.

Tachyarrhythmias can result in a substantial reduction in cardiac perfusion. What cardiovascular component's shorter duration is the cause of these perfusion changes?

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The correct answer is "Diastole."

During diastole, the heart's ventricles relax and fill with blood. This phase allows the heart to receive blood from the atria and prepare for the next contraction (systole). In tachyarrhythmias, particularly those with rapid heart rates, diastole is shortened, reducing the time available for ventricular filling. As a result, the heart may not be able to adequately fill with blood, leading to decreased cardiac output and reduced perfusion of tissues. This can result in symptoms of inadequate circulation and impaired cardiovascular function.

When a youngster has ventricular tachycardia, poor perfusion, and indications of shock, what is the most crucial course of action?

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When a youngster presents with ventricular tachycardia, poor perfusion, and indications of shock, the most crucial course of action is to perform synchronized cardioversion. Ventricular tachycardia with poor perfusion and indications of shock is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate intervention. Synchronized cardioversion delivers a synchronized electrical shock to the heart at a specific point in the cardiac cycle, aiming to restore normal sinus rhythm. This intervention is vital for stabilizing the patient's condition and preventing further deterioration. Administering medications like amiodarone or performing vagal maneuvers may not be effective or appropriate in this critical situation.

Which arrhythmias below have a QRS complex lasting longer than 0.09 seconds?

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The correct answer is "Supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant intraventricular conduction."

In typical supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), the QRS complex duration is usually narrow (less than 0.12 seconds) because the electrical impulse originates above the ventricles and follows the normal conduction pathway. However, when SVT occurs in conjunction with aberrant intraventricular conduction, such as bundle branch block, the QRS complex may widen, resulting in a duration longer than 0.09 seconds. This widened QRS complex indicates that the electrical impulse is being conducted abnormally within the ventricles, leading to a longer duration of ventricular depolarization.

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