FREE MTTC Biology Questions and Answers


Which of the following essential effects on living things is caused by water's high specific heat?

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Water's high specific heat refers to its ability to absorb and retain heat without a significant change in temperature. This property allows water to act as a thermal buffer, absorbing excess heat during warm periods and releasing it during cooler periods. As a result, bodies of water, such as oceans and lakes, help regulate the surrounding environment's temperature by mitigating extreme temperature fluctuations. This thermal moderation is vital for the maintenance of stable and hospitable conditions for various forms of life, both aquatic and terrestrial.

Which of the following describes how the exoskeleton of arthropods differs from the endoskeleton of vertebrates?

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The exoskeleton of arthropods differs from the endoskeleton of vertebrates in that arthropods must shed their rigid exoskeleton as they grow, a process called molting. This leaves the organism temporarily unprotected until the new exoskeleton forms and hardens. In contrast, vertebrates' endoskeletons allow for continuous growth and adaptation, providing consistent support and protection without the need for shedding and vulnerability during growth phases.

British chemist Rosalind Franklin is well recognized for her work as an x-ray crystallographer. Her work contributes to our knowledge of:

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Rosalind Franklin's X-ray diffraction images of DNA played a crucial role in uncovering the structure of DNA as a double helix. Her research provided valuable insights into the arrangement and spacing of the molecular components of DNA, which was essential in the determination of its iconic double-helical structure. Her work, along with that of other scientists such as James Watson and Francis Crick, contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular basis of genetics and laid the foundation for modern molecular biology.

Which of the following safety precautions would be most crucial for students to adhere to throughout this experiment?

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Wearing safety glasses while heating and cooling the flasks is essential to protect the eyes from potential hazards such as splashes, spills, or the release of harmful fumes. Heating and cooling processes can be unpredictable, and there is a risk of liquids boiling over, shattering glass, or releasing vapors that could be harmful to the eyes. Safety glasses provide a barrier against these potential hazards and help prevent eye injuries.

Specific antibiotic classes have been shown to disrupt bacterial ribosomes. Which of the following biological processes would this interference actually stop?

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Translation is the cellular process in which ribosomes use the information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) to synthesize proteins. Ribosomes are responsible for reading the genetic code carried by mRNA and assembling amino acids into a polypeptide chain according to the instructions provided by the mRNA sequence. Antibiotics that target bacterial ribosomes can inhibit this translation process, preventing bacteria from producing essential proteins necessary for their survival and growth. This disruption of translation can ultimately lead to the death or inhibition of bacterial growth, making it an effective strategy for treating bacterial infections.

Which of the following outcomes is most likely to result from a single nucleotide insertion or deletion in a prokaryotic gene?

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A single nucleotide insertion or deletion in a prokaryotic gene is likely to cause a frameshift mutation. This mutation shifts the reading frame of the genetic code, leading to incorrect codon sequences downstream of the mutation. As a consequence, the resulting mRNA encodes an altered amino acid sequence, which often results in the production of a nonfunctional or severely altered polypeptide. Frameshift mutations can have detrimental effects on protein structure and function, potentially disrupting normal cellular processes that rely on the affected protein.

The experiment's dependent variable is:

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The dependent variable in an experiment is the factor that is being measured or observed in response to changes made to the independent variable. In this case, the dependent variable is "the number of living organisms present in each flask." It represents the outcome of the experiment and will change as a result of any variations in the conditions, treatments, or manipulations applied to the experiment. The focus of the experiment is to determine how different factors might influence the population of living organisms, making the number of organisms the variable of interest that is being measured and analyzed.

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