FREE CPEN Exam MCQ Question and Answers

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Twelve hours following the commencement of the symptoms, a 4-year-old sickle cell patient with a right-sided stroke and left hemiplegia is taken to the hospital. What medical procedure is recommended to lower the chance of having another stroke?

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Explanation:
If a 4-year-old with sickle cell disease suffers a right-sided stroke with left hemiplegia and is taken to the hospital 12 hours after the onset of symptoms, exchange transfusion with a target of hemoglobin 10 g/dL and maintenance of sickled hemoglobin (HbS) to less than 30% is indicated as a treatment to lower the risk of further strokes. Although there is a known danger of cerebral hemorrhage, thrombolytics are occasionally given to kids. They should be given within 4.5 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Which approach is the MOST efficient for addressing the "emotional contagion hypothesis," which postulates that anxious parents might make their children more anxious during invasive procedures?

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Explanation:
The most effective approach is to inform the parents in advance so they are aware of exactly what the procedure entails and the significance of their calm support of the child. Healthcare providers occasionally use the "emotional contagion hypothesis" as a justification to keep parents away from the child during procedures. Giving the parents tools, such as comforting techniques and ways to divert the youngster, can enable them to concentrate on the child rather than their own anxiety.

In response to hyperthermia, a term neonate may have vasodilation and sweating, which may lead to:

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Explanation:
Due to the increased insensible water loss, hypotension and dehydration may follow if a person experiences vasodilation and sweating in reaction to hyperthemia. The newborn may require additional fluids and volume expanders to raise blood pressure. Cardiopulmonary monitoring is crucial because the newborn may have convulsions and apnea if the core temperature is high. For apnea, the newborn may need ventilation.

Despite eating healthily and gaining weight normally, a 6-month-mother old's is concerned since her child frequently and occasionally violently vomits after meals. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is therefore suspected. What type of main treatment is anticipated by the nurse?

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Explanation:
The main treatment for GERD is posture and feeding changes if a mother of a 6-month-old is concerned that her baby frequently vomits after feedings, sometimes forcefully, but the baby is eating well and gaining weight as expected. Infants frequently get GERD, which typically clears up by the time they are 12 months old. The incidence of GERD can frequently be reduced by holding the infant upright for 30 minutes following a feeding, giving the child small amounts of food, and avoiding feeding the child supine.

Having hepatomegaly, an enlarged abdomen, and stool that is the color of clay, a newborn parent four weeks after birth. Direct hyperbilirubinemia is indicated by test results. The following is the most likely reason:

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Explanation:
EBA is a direct contributor to infant hyperbilirubinemia. EBA causes cholestasis because bile builds up in the liver due to the total or partial absence of the bile duct that connects the liver to the duodenum. Jaundice and liver are the effects of this. Within 2–6 weeks, symptoms of EBA—clay-colored feces and hepatomegaly—typically become clear. Although surgical intervention is required, some kids may develop liver dysfunction and eventually need a liver transplant.

When a newborn is treated for hypoglycemia with a glucose bolus, a continuous infusion of:

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Explanation:
A continuous glucose infusion must come after a glucose bolus if the infant is being treated for hypoglycemia (less than 40 mg/dL). A continuous infusion following the glucose bolus prevents the body from continuing to utilize glucose reserves after the insulin is released in response to the administration of the glucose bolus. As a newborn's brain depends on glucose for energy and is sensitive to decreases in glucose levels, blood flow to the brain is increased to make up for these changes, but this increases the risk of cerebral hemorrhage.

Children's osteomyelitis most frequently develops because of:

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Explanation:
Hematogenous seeding is the most frequent cause of osteomyelitis in children (i.e., an infection that is spread through the blood). Staphylococcus aureus is the most prevalent infectious agent in kids of all ages, however group B Streptococcus are more prevalent in newborns. Males experience osteomyelitis around 2.5 times as commonly than females do. A recent trauma that resulted in bacteremia has a history in almost one third of people with osteomyelitis. In most cases, oral antibiotics are used for the final three to six weeks of treatment after starting with IV antibiotics.

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