FREE CNS Nutrition and Dietary Guidelines Questions and Answers

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Hyponatremia stimulates the release of _________.

Correct! Wrong!

Explanation:
Hyponatremia, which is low sodium levels in the blood, stimulates the release of aldosterone. Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body. When sodium levels are low, aldosterone is released to increase sodium reabsorption by the kidneys, which helps restore sodium balance in the bloodstream. Understanding the hormonal response to hyponatremia is fundamental to comprehending the body's mechanisms for maintaining electrolyte balance.

Which of the following can influence calcium bioavailability?

Correct! Wrong!

Explanation:
All of the listed factors can influence calcium bioavailability. Oxalates and phytates, found in certain plant foods, can bind to calcium and inhibit its absorption. Aging can also affect calcium absorption efficiency due to changes in gastrointestinal function and vitamin D metabolism. Understanding the factors that influence calcium bioavailability is essential for optimizing dietary strategies to meet calcium needs and maintain bone health.

Which of the following is a major function of vitamin E?

Correct! Wrong!

Explanation:
A major function of vitamin E is the protection of biological membranes from free radical damage. As an antioxidant, vitamin E helps neutralize free radicals, which are highly reactive molecules that can damage cell membranes and other cellular structures. By scavenging free radicals, vitamin E helps maintain the integrity of cell membranes and protects cells from oxidative stress. Understanding the antioxidant role of vitamin E is fundamental to recognizing its importance in overall health and its potential role in preventing chronic diseases associated with oxidative damage.

Most of the body's magnesium is found in:

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Explanation:
Most of the body's magnesium is found in bones. Magnesium is an essential mineral that contributes to bone structure and strength. It plays a vital role in bone mineralization by interacting with calcium and other minerals in the bone matrix. Understanding the distribution of magnesium in the body, particularly its abundance in bones, is fundamental to recognizing its importance in bone health and overall physiology.

Which Major Mineral Is A Component Of Biological Membranes?

Correct! Wrong!

Explanation:
Phosphorus is a major mineral that is a component of biological membranes. It is a key constituent of phospholipids, which are essential components of cell membranes. Phospholipids play crucial roles in maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, as well as in cell signaling processes. Understanding the role of phosphorus in membrane structure and function is fundamental to comprehending its importance in overall nutrition and cellular biology.

Dehydration causes the release of __________ from the ___________.

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Explanation:
When the body is dehydrated, a hormone called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. ADH helps the kidneys retain water, reducing urine production and conserving water in the body, ultimately helping to restore hydration levels.

Which of these vitamin-related conditions is caused by an autoimmune disease?

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Explanation:
Pernicious anemia is caused by an autoimmune condition where the body attacks the cells in the stomach lining responsible for producing intrinsic factor, a protein necessary for vitamin B12 absorption. Without intrinsic factors, vitamin B12 absorption is impaired, leading to pernicious anemia. This highlights the importance of understanding the relationship between autoimmune diseases and nutrient deficiencies in the context of dietary guidelines and recommendations.

Calcitonin is released by the ____________ during periods of ___________ blood calcium concentration.

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Explanation:
Calcitonin is a hormone primarily produced by the thyroid gland. Its primary function is to regulate calcium levels in the blood. When blood calcium levels are high, such as after a meal, the thyroid gland releases calcitonin. Calcitonin acts to lower blood calcium levels by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue and releasing calcium into the bloodstream. By inhibiting osteoclast activity, calcitonin helps to promote calcium deposition into bone, thereby reducing blood calcium levels. This process helps maintain calcium homeostasis in the body.

For which fat-soluble vitamin has the Institute of Medicine not established an upper limit?

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Explanation:
The Institute of Medicine has not established an upper limit for vitamin K. Unlike other fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, and E, which have established upper limits to prevent toxicity, vitamin K does not have a recognized upper limit. This indicates that vitamin K is considered to have a low risk of toxicity even at higher intake levels. Understanding the absence of an established upper limit for vitamin K is important for providing dietary guidance and recommendations regarding its intake.

Which of the following situations might warrant dietary supplementation?

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Explanation:
All of the situations listed might warrant dietary supplementation. Vegetarianism may require supplementation of nutrients commonly found in animal products, such as vitamin B12 and iron. Lactose intolerance might necessitate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D if dairy products are restricted. Limited time for food preparation might lead to inadequate intake of essential nutrients, prompting the need for supplementation to fill nutritional gaps. Understanding when dietary supplementation may be necessary is crucial for providing appropriate dietary guidance in line with nutrition and dietary guidelines.

The functions of vitamin K depend largely on which of the following minerals?

Correct! Wrong!

Explanation:
The functions of vitamin K largely depend on calcium. Vitamin K plays a crucial role in the activation of proteins involved in blood clotting and bone metabolism. These processes require calcium as a cofactor for the proper functioning of vitamin K-dependent enzymes. Therefore, adequate calcium levels are necessary for vitamin K to perform its physiological functions effectively. Understanding the interplay between vitamin K and calcium is fundamental to comprehending their roles in blood coagulation and bone health.

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