FREE CMC Certification MCQ Questions and Answers

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A 30-year-old lady who reports experiencing palpitations and chest pain is later found to have pericarditis. Pericardial effusion symptoms are visible on an echocardiography. The following vital signs are present: temperature, 98.5 °F; blood pressure, 117/68 mmHg; respiratory rate, 15 breaths/min; heart rate, 94 beats/min; and oxygen saturation, 100% on room air. There is no relevant medical history for the patient. Which course of action is best at this particular moment?

Correct! Wrong!

It is not necessary to drain the pericardial effusion right away if the patient is hemodynamically stable and shows no signs of cardiac tamponade. It is important to identify the underlying cause of the effusion and start the right kind of medical care. The patient may receive treatment as an outpatient if it is assessed that she is stable. She should be made aware of the signs of a growing pericardial effusion, and an appointment for an outpatient follow-up should be made.

A patient reports experiencing right calf soreness. In order to assess the patient for a potential deep venous thrombosis (DVT), the nurse makes the decision. Except for one, each of the following indications or symptoms is typical of a DVT.

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Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) cannot be definitively diagnosed with a physical examination, however, some findings may help direct further treatment. A palpable chord, unilateral calf or thigh pain, unilateral edema, warmth, tenderness, erythema, and superficial venous dilatation are all signs that a DVT may be present. Skin deterioration is not a common indicator of DVT.

A woman, age 47, arrives at the hospital with a blood pressure reading of 220/130 mmHg. When she first arrives, she is bewildered, restless, and unable to respond to inquiries. Her family claims that earlier in the day, she had complained of a severe headache and nausea. Her spouse observes that she recently quit taking her blood pressure medication because she no longer felt the need for it. What type of medical intervention is best?

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The patient in question is dealing with an acute hypertensive crisis with hypertensive encephalopathy. In this case, intravenous antihypertensive medicine should be used to rapidly drop a patient's diastolic blood pressure to around 100 mmHg (with the maximum first decrease being 25% or less of the presenting value). Over the course of 2 to 6 hours, the blood pressure should initially drop. Once the blood pressure is under control, the patient should switch to oral medication, and over the course of the following two to three months, the diastolic blood pressure should be steadily decreased to roughly 85 mmHg. Even while the severity of the symptoms necessitates a rapid drop in blood pressure, if it is done so overly quickly, additional consequences, such as renal failure, could result.

A 68-year-old woman comes in with dyspnea and acute substernal chest discomfort. Deep T-wave inversion with QT-interval lengthening is seen on an ECG. The results of a laboratory analysis show a very slight rise of cardiac enzymes and troponin. There was no history of heart illness in the patient. She had learned that her daughter and grandchild had perished in a vehicle accident just before her symptoms started. The apical half of the left ventricle (LV) was dyskinetic on echocardiography, along with apical ballooning. Only minor coronary atherosclerosis was seen after coronary angiography. Weeks later, the patient underwent a reevaluation, and it was discovered that she had regained her normal LV function. What most likely happened to this patient?

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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is defined by the lack of obstructive coronary artery disease, temporary systolic dysfunction of the apical portion of the left ventricle (LV), LV apical ballooning, electrocardiographic alterations, modest elevation of troponin and cardiac enzymes. The patient's speedy recovery and the fact that there is just a very slight rise in troponin should prompt the examination of other options, even though the symptoms could be comparable to those of a myocardial infarction. The previous stressor and the typical findings mentioned here point to stress-induced cardiomyopathy. A severe medical condition or a great deal of mental or physical stress are frequent causes.

A routine x-ray reveals an asymptomatic descending thoracic aortic aneurysm in the patient. The aneurysm is 4 cm in diameter. What initial management is advised?

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Medical therapy is typically advised for asymptomatic patients with descending thoracic aortic aneurysms less than 6 cm in diameter; however, recent research suggests that the patient's height should also be taken into consideration when deciding whether to do surgery. Intensive blood pressure control with beta-blockers as part of the regimen, symptom surveillance, and serial imaging to assess growth and structure are all components of medical care. Surgery is necessary if the patient exhibits symptoms, the descending aortic aneurysm is 6 cm or larger, it is growing more quickly than usual, or there is evidence of dissection.

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is contraindicated in patients who exhibit signs and symptoms of

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In individuals who are suspected of having a pneumothorax, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is not advised because it would likely exacerbate the buildup of air (and consequently tension) in the chest cavity, which could worsen the patient's condition. Other causes of acute respiratory failure, such as cardiogenic pulmonary edema, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have demonstrated to benefit from CPAP as noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.

What grade is most probable a slight cardiac murmur that may only be noticed when concentrating?

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Heart murmurs in grade I are extremely faint, but with skill and concentration, one can hear them. While still weak, Grade II murmurs are easier to hear. Grade III murmurs are not thrilling and are moderately loud. Loud murmurs in the grade IV range may be exciting. Grade V murmurs are extremely loud and exciting. Grade VI murmurs are related to excitement, are extremely loud, and can be heard even without placing a stethoscope on the chest.

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