FREE CAE Reading Questions and Answers

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Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

The author uses the views of several experts who were not part in the investigation to

Correct! Wrong!

The study did not establish a link between air pollution and restless nights.

Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

The author appears to imply that

Correct! Wrong!

There's no denying the mounting evidence that air pollution has effects on our bodies that we were previously unaware of.

Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

In the second paragraph, the author tells us what references the researchers used to conduct their study.

Correct! Wrong!

Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

First paragraph writer defines sleep efficiency as

Correct! Wrong!

The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency.

It was a calm Sunday afternoon, the calm before the chaos of traffic jams, alarm clocks, and deadlines on Monday morning. Rebecca's elbow continued to rest on the arm of the sofa covered with tapestries when the clock struck three. She started to stroke the rough piping that ran along its seams with her fingertips. Her left foot's toes swept back and forth over the sheepskin rug's edges at the same time. Rebecca found comfort in this movement; it took her back to her childhood home, where she used to sit in the family sitting room and play with the fringes of a different kind of rug. Naturally, she continued to do it more since her mother would yell at her to stop.

Suddenly, Rebecca smelled the glue Katy was using to create one of her artistic projects. Her daughter was perched on a cushion in the center of the room, appearing like an island amid a sea of felt-tip pens, sequins, cardboard cut-offs, and immaculate A4 sheets of paper that she had obediently stolen from her father's study. Really, Rebecca thought, she should be working at the kitchen table, but if my genius-daughter-at-work gets disturbed, I don't have the stomach for the tantrum that could ensue. Katy stood up every three minutes and fifty seconds to perform Kylie Minogue's rendition of "The Locomotion."

Her father, who was stretched out on the other sofa, asked, "Why don't you listen to the CD all the way through, Katy?" "You'd like the other songs as well." "Nah, too boring."

Rebecca gave David a quick glance before uttering, "I could do with something to perk me up." Her comments were followed by a yawn and a heavy sigh. She seemed to be hinting for the first time that he should get up and get her a cup of tea.

She saw a letter promoting gym classes and a dieting club that had been delivered a week ago on the lamp table next to the sofa. She had placed it on the table as a prompt, or maybe to summon the same type of enchanted feeling that people have when they shell out a lot of money for a fancy gym membership but don't visit the facility more than twice every two months.

She asked her spouse, "Have you seen this flyer?" She said, "I want to go lie down just thinking about working out." This time, she received no response. She made her third and most obvious attempt to grab a drink before getting dehydration-prone, "Who's going to make the tea then?"

He got to his feet. "I guess it's my turn again," he said, disappearing into the kitchen as the winner, Rebecca, tucked herself even more into the couch. Now, Charlie, who had been dozing on the sheepskin rug, began babbling in his own way. This afternoon, he was trying to cover every vowel sound in the book, much like a vocalist warming up. From time to time, he would press his fingers against his mouth, producing a sound that resembled an extended 'w'.

He was lying beneath a baby gym made of a red, white, and blue tubular frame with a top bar that suspended two clowns—one on a swing and the other in what Rebecca believed to be a pike. (She had earned her gold star medal in the trampoline a long time ago.) Charlie's cheerful babble turned into a grizzle as soon as he made eye contact with Rebecca.

Rebecca, annoying everyone, including herself, questioned in a baby's voice, "Does Charlie want feeding again?" She knelt to pick up her son. "Mum, he doesn't want feeding again. You've only just fed him," Katy replied. She warmed through Charlie's favorite mush of potatoes and broccoli in the kitchen and brought it back through to be with Katy. "I'll try-just in case he's hungry."

Rebecca fortunately saved face with her daughter and demonstrated that she didn't have to feel bad about sending her husband to make the tea because the baby was truly ready for a feed. That exact minute, David returned to the sitting room, her cup of Earl Grey, its subtle bergamot smell swaying in its saucer. With one hand, he held a sizable mug. Rebecca shot him a look of caution, daring him to place the cups somewhere else than on the oak blanket box that functioned as their coffee table. Already, two circles where hot drinks had been haphazardly plopped directly onto its surface marred its surface.

When Charlie finally had enough, she would know that her tea would be just the right temperature to drink all at once, so she said, "Thanks. You're a treasure." and sat down to feed him. After a few minutes, David asked, "Where's Katy got to?" The sound of their elder child entering her bedroom through the curtain came from upstairs, and there was the answer. It resembled the beaded curtains that were popular when Rebecca was a young girl, but instead of beads, this one was made from an eye-catching assortment of shimmering plastic squares in shades of pink, purple, and silver. It was quite fitting, but she couldn't recall which of them had called it the "jingle-jangler."

When her husband brings in the beverages, Rebecca worries because

Correct! Wrong!

It was a calm Sunday afternoon, the calm before the chaos of traffic jams, alarm clocks, and deadlines on Monday morning. Rebecca's elbow continued to rest on the arm of the sofa covered with tapestries when the clock struck three. She started to stroke the rough piping that ran along its seams with her fingertips. Her left foot's toes swept back and forth over the sheepskin rug's edges at the same time. Rebecca found comfort in this movement; it took her back to her childhood home, where she used to sit in the family sitting room and play with the fringes of a different kind of rug. Naturally, she continued to do it more since her mother would yell at her to stop.

Suddenly, Rebecca smelled the glue Katy was using to create one of her artistic projects. Her daughter was perched on a cushion in the center of the room, appearing like an island amid a sea of felt-tip pens, sequins, cardboard cut-offs, and immaculate A4 sheets of paper that she had obediently stolen from her father's study. Really, Rebecca thought, she should be working at the kitchen table, but if my genius-daughter-at-work gets disturbed, I don't have the stomach for the tantrum that could ensue. Katy stood up every three minutes and fifty seconds to perform Kylie Minogue's rendition of "The Locomotion."

Her father, who was stretched out on the other sofa, asked, "Why don't you listen to the CD all the way through, Katy?" "You'd like the other songs as well." "Nah, too boring."

Rebecca gave David a quick glance before uttering, "I could do with something to perk me up." Her comments were followed by a yawn and a heavy sigh. She seemed to be hinting for the first time that he should get up and get her a cup of tea.

She saw a letter promoting gym classes and a dieting club that had been delivered a week ago on the lamp table next to the sofa. She had placed it on the table as a prompt, or maybe to summon the same type of enchanted feeling that people have when they shell out a lot of money for a fancy gym membership but don't visit the facility more than twice every two months.

She asked her spouse, "Have you seen this flyer?" She said, "I want to go lie down just thinking about working out." This time, she received no response. She made her third and most obvious attempt to grab a drink before getting dehydration-prone, "Who's going to make the tea then?"

He got to his feet. "I guess it's my turn again," he said, disappearing into the kitchen as the winner, Rebecca, tucked herself even more into the couch. Now, Charlie, who had been dozing on the sheepskin rug, began babbling in his own way. This afternoon, he was trying to cover every vowel sound in the book, much like a vocalist warming up. From time to time, he would press his fingers against his mouth, producing a sound that resembled an extended 'w'.

He was lying beneath a baby gym made of a red, white, and blue tubular frame with a top bar that suspended two clowns—one on a swing and the other in what Rebecca believed to be a pike. (She had earned her gold star medal in the trampoline a long time ago.) Charlie's cheerful babble turned into a grizzle as soon as he made eye contact with Rebecca.

Rebecca, annoying everyone, including herself, questioned in a baby's voice, "Does Charlie want feeding again?" She knelt to pick up her son. "Mum, he doesn't want feeding again. You've only just fed him," Katy replied. She warmed through Charlie's favorite mush of potatoes and broccoli in the kitchen and brought it back through to be with Katy. "I'll try-just in case he's hungry."

Rebecca fortunately saved face with her daughter and demonstrated that she didn't have to feel bad about sending her husband to make the tea because the baby was truly ready for a feed. That exact minute, David returned to the sitting room, her cup of Earl Grey, its subtle bergamot smell swaying in its saucer. With one hand, he held a sizable mug. Rebecca shot him a look of caution, daring him to place the cups somewhere else than on the oak blanket box that functioned as their coffee table. Already, two circles where hot drinks had been haphazardly plopped directly onto its surface marred its surface.

When Charlie finally had enough, she would know that her tea would be just the right temperature to drink all at once, so she said, "Thanks. You're a treasure." and sat down to feed him. After a few minutes, David asked, "Where's Katy got to?" The sound of their elder child entering her bedroom through the curtain came from upstairs, and there was the answer. It resembled the beaded curtains that were popular when Rebecca was a young girl, but instead of beads, this one was made from an eye-catching assortment of shimmering plastic squares in shades of pink, purple, and silver. It was quite fitting, but she couldn't recall which of them had called it the "jingle-jangler."

How does Rebecca feel about the letter that's on the table?

Correct! Wrong!

It was a calm Sunday afternoon, the calm before the chaos of traffic jams, alarm clocks, and deadlines on Monday morning. Rebecca's elbow continued to rest on the arm of the sofa covered with tapestries when the clock struck three. She started to stroke the rough piping that ran along its seams with her fingertips. Her left foot's toes swept back and forth over the sheepskin rug's edges at the same time. Rebecca found comfort in this movement; it took her back to her childhood home, where she used to sit in the family sitting room and play with the fringes of a different kind of rug. Naturally, she continued to do it more since her mother would yell at her to stop.

Suddenly, Rebecca smelled the glue Katy was using to create one of her artistic projects. Her daughter was perched on a cushion in the center of the room, appearing like an island amid a sea of felt-tip pens, sequins, cardboard cut-offs, and immaculate A4 sheets of paper that she had obediently stolen from her father's study. Really, Rebecca thought, she should be working at the kitchen table, but if my genius-daughter-at-work gets disturbed, I don't have the stomach for the tantrum that could ensue. Katy stood up every three minutes and fifty seconds to perform Kylie Minogue's rendition of "The Locomotion."

Her father, who was stretched out on the other sofa, asked, "Why don't you listen to the CD all the way through, Katy?" "You'd like the other songs as well." "Nah, too boring."

Rebecca gave David a quick glance before uttering, "I could do with something to perk me up." Her comments were followed by a yawn and a heavy sigh. She seemed to be hinting for the first time that he should get up and get her a cup of tea.

She saw a letter promoting gym classes and a dieting club that had been delivered a week ago on the lamp table next to the sofa. She had placed it on the table as a prompt, or maybe to summon the same type of enchanted feeling that people have when they shell out a lot of money for a fancy gym membership but don't visit the facility more than twice every two months.

She asked her spouse, "Have you seen this flyer?" She said, "I want to go lie down just thinking about working out." This time, she received no response. She made her third and most obvious attempt to grab a drink before getting dehydration-prone, "Who's going to make the tea then?"

He got to his feet. "I guess it's my turn again," he said, disappearing into the kitchen as the winner, Rebecca, tucked herself even more into the couch. Now, Charlie, who had been dozing on the sheepskin rug, began babbling in his own way. This afternoon, he was trying to cover every vowel sound in the book, much like a vocalist warming up. From time to time, he would press his fingers against his mouth, producing a sound that resembled an extended 'w'.

He was lying beneath a baby gym made of a red, white, and blue tubular frame with a top bar that suspended two clowns—one on a swing and the other in what Rebecca believed to be a pike. (She had earned her gold star medal in the trampoline a long time ago.) Charlie's cheerful babble turned into a grizzle as soon as he made eye contact with Rebecca.

Rebecca, annoying everyone, including herself, questioned in a baby's voice, "Does Charlie want feeding again?" She knelt to pick up her son. "Mum, he doesn't want feeding again. You've only just fed him," Katy replied. She warmed through Charlie's favorite mush of potatoes and broccoli in the kitchen and brought it back through to be with Katy. "I'll try-just in case he's hungry."

Rebecca fortunately saved face with her daughter and demonstrated that she didn't have to feel bad about sending her husband to make the tea because the baby was truly ready for a feed. That exact minute, David returned to the sitting room, her cup of Earl Grey, its subtle bergamot smell swaying in its saucer. With one hand, he held a sizable mug. Rebecca shot him a look of caution, daring him to place the cups somewhere else than on the oak blanket box that functioned as their coffee table. Already, two circles where hot drinks had been haphazardly plopped directly onto its surface marred its surface.

When Charlie finally had enough, she would know that her tea would be just the right temperature to drink all at once, so she said, "Thanks. You're a treasure." and sat down to feed him. After a few minutes, David asked, "Where's Katy got to?" The sound of their elder child entering her bedroom through the curtain came from upstairs, and there was the answer. It resembled the beaded curtains that were popular when Rebecca was a young girl, but instead of beads, this one was made from an eye-catching assortment of shimmering plastic squares in shades of pink, purple, and silver. It was quite fitting, but she couldn't recall which of them had called it the "jingle-jangler."

Rebecca is there when David initially exits the sitting room.

Correct! Wrong!

It was a calm Sunday afternoon, the calm before the chaos of traffic jams, alarm clocks, and deadlines on Monday morning. Rebecca's elbow continued to rest on the arm of the sofa covered with tapestries when the clock struck three. She started to stroke the rough piping that ran along its seams with her fingertips. Her left foot's toes swept back and forth over the sheepskin rug's edges at the same time. Rebecca found comfort in this movement; it took her back to her childhood home, where she used to sit in the family sitting room and play with the fringes of a different kind of rug. Naturally, she continued to do it more since her mother would yell at her to stop.

Suddenly, Rebecca smelled the glue Katy was using to create one of her artistic projects. Her daughter was perched on a cushion in the center of the room, appearing like an island amid a sea of felt-tip pens, sequins, cardboard cut-offs, and immaculate A4 sheets of paper that she had obediently stolen from her father's study. Really, Rebecca thought, she should be working at the kitchen table, but if my genius-daughter-at-work gets disturbed, I don't have the stomach for the tantrum that could ensue. Katy stood up every three minutes and fifty seconds to perform Kylie Minogue's rendition of "The Locomotion."

Her father, who was stretched out on the other sofa, asked, "Why don't you listen to the CD all the way through, Katy?" "You'd like the other songs as well." "Nah, too boring."

Rebecca gave David a quick glance before uttering, "I could do with something to perk me up." Her comments were followed by a yawn and a heavy sigh. She seemed to be hinting for the first time that he should get up and get her a cup of tea.

She saw a letter promoting gym classes and a dieting club that had been delivered a week ago on the lamp table next to the sofa. She had placed it on the table as a prompt, or maybe to summon the same type of enchanted feeling that people have when they shell out a lot of money for a fancy gym membership but don't visit the facility more than twice every two months.

She asked her spouse, "Have you seen this flyer?" She said, "I want to go lie down just thinking about working out." This time, she received no response. She made her third and most obvious attempt to grab a drink before getting dehydration-prone, "Who's going to make the tea then?"

He got to his feet. "I guess it's my turn again," he said, disappearing into the kitchen as the winner, Rebecca, tucked herself even more into the couch. Now, Charlie, who had been dozing on the sheepskin rug, began babbling in his own way. This afternoon, he was trying to cover every vowel sound in the book, much like a vocalist warming up. From time to time, he would press his fingers against his mouth, producing a sound that resembled an extended 'w'.

He was lying beneath a baby gym made of a red, white, and blue tubular frame with a top bar that suspended two clowns—one on a swing and the other in what Rebecca believed to be a pike. (She had earned her gold star medal in the trampoline a long time ago.) Charlie's cheerful babble turned into a grizzle as soon as he made eye contact with Rebecca.

Rebecca, annoying everyone, including herself, questioned in a baby's voice, "Does Charlie want feeding again?" She knelt to pick up her son. "Mum, he doesn't want feeding again. You've only just fed him," Katy replied. She warmed through Charlie's favorite mush of potatoes and broccoli in the kitchen and brought it back through to be with Katy. "I'll try-just in case he's hungry."

Rebecca fortunately saved face with her daughter and demonstrated that she didn't have to feel bad about sending her husband to make the tea because the baby was truly ready for a feed. That exact minute, David returned to the sitting room, her cup of Earl Grey, its subtle bergamot smell swaying in its saucer. With one hand, he held a sizable mug. Rebecca shot him a look of caution, daring him to place the cups somewhere else than on the oak blanket box that functioned as their coffee table. Already, two circles where hot drinks had been haphazardly plopped directly onto its surface marred its surface.

When Charlie finally had enough, she would know that her tea would be just the right temperature to drink all at once, so she said, "Thanks. You're a treasure." and sat down to feed him. After a few minutes, David asked, "Where's Katy got to?" The sound of their elder child entering her bedroom through the curtain came from upstairs, and there was the answer. It resembled the beaded curtains that were popular when Rebecca was a young girl, but instead of beads, this one was made from an eye-catching assortment of shimmering plastic squares in shades of pink, purple, and silver. It was quite fitting, but she couldn't recall which of them had called it the "jingle-jangler."

At the beginning of the novel, Rebecca's attitude is

Correct! Wrong!

Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

Why does the author describe how the participants were divided into various groups by the researchers?

Correct! Wrong!

It was a calm Sunday afternoon, the calm before the chaos of traffic jams, alarm clocks, and deadlines on Monday morning. Rebecca's elbow continued to rest on the arm of the sofa covered with tapestries when the clock struck three. She started to stroke the rough piping that ran along its seams with her fingertips. Her left foot's toes swept back and forth over the sheepskin rug's edges at the same time. Rebecca found comfort in this movement; it took her back to her childhood home, where she used to sit in the family sitting room and play with the fringes of a different kind of rug. Naturally, she continued to do it more since her mother would yell at her to stop.

Suddenly, Rebecca smelled the glue Katy was using to create one of her artistic projects. Her daughter was perched on a cushion in the center of the room, appearing like an island amid a sea of felt-tip pens, sequins, cardboard cut-offs, and immaculate A4 sheets of paper that she had obediently stolen from her father's study. Really, Rebecca thought, she should be working at the kitchen table, but if my genius-daughter-at-work gets disturbed, I don't have the stomach for the tantrum that could ensue. Katy stood up every three minutes and fifty seconds to perform Kylie Minogue's rendition of "The Locomotion."

Her father, who was stretched out on the other sofa, asked, "Why don't you listen to the CD all the way through, Katy?" "You'd like the other songs as well." "Nah, too boring."

Rebecca gave David a quick glance before uttering, "I could do with something to perk me up." Her comments were followed by a yawn and a heavy sigh. She seemed to be hinting for the first time that he should get up and get her a cup of tea.

She saw a letter promoting gym classes and a dieting club that had been delivered a week ago on the lamp table next to the sofa. She had placed it on the table as a prompt, or maybe to summon the same type of enchanted feeling that people have when they shell out a lot of money for a fancy gym membership but don't visit the facility more than twice every two months.

She asked her spouse, "Have you seen this flyer?" She said, "I want to go lie down just thinking about working out." This time, she received no response. She made her third and most obvious attempt to grab a drink before getting dehydration-prone, "Who's going to make the tea then?"

He got to his feet. "I guess it's my turn again," he said, disappearing into the kitchen as the winner, Rebecca, tucked herself even more into the couch. Now, Charlie, who had been dozing on the sheepskin rug, began babbling in his own way. This afternoon, he was trying to cover every vowel sound in the book, much like a vocalist warming up. From time to time, he would press his fingers against his mouth, producing a sound that resembled an extended 'w'.

He was lying beneath a baby gym made of a red, white, and blue tubular frame with a top bar that suspended two clowns—one on a swing and the other in what Rebecca believed to be a pike. (She had earned her gold star medal in the trampoline a long time ago.) Charlie's cheerful babble turned into a grizzle as soon as he made eye contact with Rebecca.

Rebecca, annoying everyone, including herself, questioned in a baby's voice, "Does Charlie want feeding again?" She knelt to pick up her son. "Mum, he doesn't want feeding again. You've only just fed him," Katy replied. She warmed through Charlie's favorite mush of potatoes and broccoli in the kitchen and brought it back through to be with Katy. "I'll try-just in case he's hungry."

Rebecca fortunately saved face with her daughter and demonstrated that she didn't have to feel bad about sending her husband to make the tea because the baby was truly ready for a feed. That exact minute, David returned to the sitting room, her cup of Earl Grey, its subtle bergamot smell swaying in its saucer. With one hand, he held a sizable mug. Rebecca shot him a look of caution, daring him to place the cups somewhere else than on the oak blanket box that functioned as their coffee table. Already, two circles where hot drinks had been haphazardly plopped directly onto its surface marred its surface.

When Charlie finally had enough, she would know that her tea would be just the right temperature to drink all at once, so she said, "Thanks. You're a treasure." and sat down to feed him. After a few minutes, David asked, "Where's Katy got to?" The sound of their elder child entering her bedroom through the curtain came from upstairs, and there was the answer. It resembled the beaded curtains that were popular when Rebecca was a young girl, but instead of beads, this one was made from an eye-catching assortment of shimmering plastic squares in shades of pink, purple, and silver. It was quite fitting, but she couldn't recall which of them had called it the "jingle-jangler."

What does Rebecca do in relation to her daughter?

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Researchers examining how toxic air affects our sleep believe there may be a connection between air pollution and restless nights. The amount of time participants spent sleeping in bed at night as opposed to being awake was examined in the study; this is known as sleep efficiency. The findings show that there is a correlation between a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep efficiency and increased exposure to nitrogen dioxide and PM 2.5s, which are tiny particles. Researchers speculate that this may be related to the physiological effects of air pollution.

"Those pollutants can irritate your nose, sinuses, and back of your throat, which can cause some disruption in your sleep," stated Martha Billings, co-author of the study and assistant professor of medicine at the University of Washington. The study made use of nitrogen dioxide and PM2.5 level air pollution data that were collected over a five-year period in six US cities, including data that was collected close to the 1,863 participants' houses. Estimates of the pollution levels in the residence were then produced using the data.

Using the data, the researchers divided the participants into quarters based on how well they were able to sleep: the top quarter had a sleep efficiency of roughly 93% or more, while the lowest quarter had a sleep efficiency of 88% or less. After that, the individuals were divided into four groups by the team according to how much each group had been exposed to air pollution. The team discovered that those who were exposed to the highest levels of air pollution over a five-year period were more likely to be in the bottom group for sleep efficiency than those exposed to the lowest levels, even after accounting for a wide range of factors like age, smoking status, and conditions like obstructive sleep apnea.

More precisely, high levels of PM2.5s raised the odds of poor sleep efficiency by nearly 50%, whereas high levels of nitrogen dioxide increased the odds by nearly 60%. Increased amounts of time spent awake following sleep have also been associated with higher pollution levels. It's unclear, though, if the participants' reduced sleep quality was caused by the pollution per se or if other elements connected to pollution, like traffic noise, were at blame. Furthermore, a person's normal sleep pattern may not be reflected in data gathered from a single week of sleep.

A link between pollution and sleep was not surprising, according to Roy Harrison, professor of environmental health at the University of Birmingham. Scott Weichenthal, an epidemiologist from McGill University in Canada who was not involved in the study, said the research did not prove that air pollution caused poor sleep, but he added that "there is certainly increasing evidence that air pollution affects our body in ways that we didn't appreciate before." "Previous studies have demonstrated links between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and impacts on a range of physiological and biochemical processes within the body, in addition to hospitalizations and death," the speaker stated. Therefore, it should not be shocking that these exposures have an impact on sleep patterns.

What does the author suggest regarding the findings of the study?

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It's unclear if the participants' sleep was being impacted by the pollution itself.

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