FREE Bachelor of Science in Forestry: Forest Pathology and Disease Management Questions and Answers

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What is the best way to deal with plant diseases in a way that is integrated?

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The best approach for dealing with plant diseases in an integrated manner is to implement a combination of management techniques, reserving the use of pesticides as a last resort. This strategy, known as integrated pest management (IPM), emphasizes cultural practices, plant selection, and other non-chemical methods as the primary means of control, while only turning to pesticides when all other options have been exhausted. This approach minimizes the environmental impact and potential harm to beneficial organisms while effectively managing plant diseases.

What is the primary motivation behind the need for highly trained forest pathologists?

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The correct answer is "To reduce economic costs in forest management". The passage highlights the enormous economic and environmental costs caused by invasive pests, pathogens, and climate change. Highly trained forest pathologists are needed to find solutions and mitigate these losses in order to ensure healthy forests and continued provision of ecosystem services.

Which aspect of forest pathology requires a specialized understanding that differs from agricultural plant pathology?

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The correct answer is "Study of woody tissue interactions". Forest tree pathogens attack long-lived organisms with differentiated woody tissue types, requiring a specialized understanding of tree-microbe-environment interactions. This differs from agricultural plant pathology, which often focuses on annual, herbaceous plants in simplified agroecosystems.

In the case of plant diseases, what is the main goal of a disease cycle?

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In the context of plant diseases, the primary objective of a disease cycle is to elucidate and describe the lifecycle of a pathogen. It outlines the sequence of events involved in the development of the disease, including the production and spread of infectious inoculum, penetration into the host plant, infection, and subsequent cycles to produce new inoculum, all of which contribute to the overall disease progression.

Which of these is NOT something that viruses do?

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The correct answer is They are visible with a common light microscope. This statement is accurate. Viruses are so small that individual virus particles cannot be seen with a common light microscope; they require more powerful tools like electron microscopes for visualization. Viruses consist of genetic material within a protein coat, can cause various symptoms in plants, and are spread through infected seed, pollen, or vectors like aphids.

What is the most important thing a good horticulturist does to prevent and deal with plant diseases?

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The passage states that the first and best defense against plant diseases is to have a healthy plant. This is the main responsibility of a skilled horticulturist.

In a diagnostic lab, what is a common way to figure out what kind of fungus it is?

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In a diagnostic lab, a common method to identify the type of fungus is by placing the affected tissue on a nutrient medium in a petri plate. This allows the fungus to grow and develop, enabling researchers to observe its characteristic features and aid in accurate identification.

What is the main goal of a disease management strategy for integrated pest management (IPM)?

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The primary objective of a disease management strategy within integrated pest management (IPM) is to integrate a variety of management techniques, emphasizing the use of cultural practices, biological controls, and other non-chemical methods. Pesticides are considered a last resort in this approach, chosen only when other methods have proven insufficient in effectively managing the disease.

In the case of plant diseases, what are vectors?

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In the context of plant diseases, vectors refer to living organisms that act as carriers, facilitating the transmission of disease-causing agents from one host plant to another. These organisms, often insects or other arthropods, play a critical role in the spread of pathogens, allowing them to infect new plants and contribute to the dissemination of the disease.

Why will future forest pathologists require multidisciplinary training and approaches?

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The correct answer is " To address emerging pest and pathogen challenges". The passage emphasizes that future forest pathologists will need multidisciplinary training to tackle new and re-emerging forest health issues, especially in the face of climate change and globalization.

What is the main difference between a disease on a plant and a disorder that is caused by the environment?

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Plant diseases are caused by living factors, while abiotic disorders are caused by nonliving factors. This means that plant diseases are typically the result of infections by pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, or nematodes, whereas abiotic disorders stem from environmental conditions such as nutrient imbalances, extreme temperatures, or chemical exposures. This distinction is crucial in diagnosing and managing plant health issues effectively.

Which of the following diseases has been effectively managed through tree breeding for disease resistance?

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The correct answer is " Fusiform rust". The passage mentions that tree breeding for disease resistance has been successful in controlling fusiform rust in loblolly and slash pine plantations.

Which of these parts of a leaf or flower can release water or nectar?

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The correct answer is Hydathodes. Hydathodes are specialized structures found on leaves or flowers that can excrete water or nectar. These structures play a role in regulating the water balance of the plant and releasing excess water or nectar from the plant's tissues. Stomata, on the other hand, serve as breathing pores for gaseous exchange, while nectarthodes and rhizomorphs are not associated with the release of water or nectar.

Why has the number of classically trained forest pathology faculty positions declined in U.S. universities?

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The correct answer is "" Retirement of existing faculty positions"". The passage mentions that many forest pathology faculty positions have not been replaced following retirement, contributing to the decline in the number of these positions at universities.

Which of the following conditions is a phytoplasma-related disease?

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The correct answer is Aster yellows. Aster yellows is a disease caused by phytoplasmas, affecting many landscape and garden plants. It leads to stunted, malformed plant structures and chlorosis. Late blight, Rhizosphaera needlecast, and fire blight are caused by other pathogens and are not related to phytoplasmas.

Why is it important to know about a plant's environment and common diseases in order to figure out what's wrong with it?

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Understanding a plant's environment and common diseases is important to accurately diagnose plant issues and prevent unnecessary expenses and pesticide use. This knowledge helps avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments, leading to effective management and conservation of resources.

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