# FE Civil Engineering Exam Prep #2

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#### Which of the following answers best describes why is it important to use critical path project management tools?

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Critical path project management tools ensure consistent reporting and project benchmarking by producing easily understood reports and graphics needed to assess the cost, status, and performance of a project. It is important to monitor the progress of a project to ensure the project is completed within budget and on time, the company’s workforce is properly utilized, and the work performed is of the highest quality.

#### Upon which of the following series of elements is a traverse that connects successive points based?

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Series of distances and bearings, angles, and azimuths are all used to connect a traverse. Traverses are used in surveying to establish control networks in order to identify specific points on the ground. This surveying method involves placing survey stations along a path (closed polygon, closed link, or open traverse) and measuring the angles and distances between the points.

#### Which of the following equations is used for evaluating a retaining structure’s factor of safety of against overturning (FSo)?

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The equation FSo = resisting moment / overturning moment is used for evaluating a retaining structure’s factor of safety with respect to overturning. Typically, a minimum factor of safety of 2.0 to 3.0 is considered necessary for a retaining wall to resist rotating outward around the toe of the wall. FSo is expressed as follows: FSo = ∑Mr / ∑Mo Where ∑Mr is the sum of the resisting moments around the toe and ∑Mo is the sum of the overturning moments around the toe

#### Which of the following best describes the term maximum bending moment in a beam?

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The term maximum bending moment in a beam is best described as the point at which shear forces change from positive to negative within the beam. Bending moments within a beam are rotational forces that cause the beam to bend, and the maximum bending moment is located at the peak of the bend. There may be more than one maximum bending moment within a beam if the forces applied on it cause the beam to bend in multiple places. The points where maximum bending moments occur can be seen on a bending moment diagram where the graphed cumulative moment passes through the x-axis.

#### What must be true about two given objects so that energy can be transferred as heat between them?

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Two objects must be at different temperatures so that energy can be transferred as heat between the two objects. Heat transfer can be accomplished through conduction, convection, thermal radiation, and mass transfer. The two objects do not have to be relatively close or contain significant amounts of energy or mass for heat transfer to occur.

#### What is Moore’s law?

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Moore’s Law states that processing power will double every two years. Moore’s Law, based on a prediction by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore, originally stated that the number of transistors that can be fit on a silicon chip would double every two years, but this is equivalent to processing power. His prediction has held true for the last 50 years.

#### Given a triangle with sides a = 20 feet, b = 40 feet, and c = 56, what is the area in square feet?

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The area of the triangle is 281.68 ft2. Solution Use the formula for the area of a triangle with sides a, b, and c: A = [s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)]½ where s = (a + b + c)/2 Where a = 20 ft b = 40 ft c = 56 ft s = (20 ft + 40 ft + 56 ft)/2 = 58 ft A = [58 (58-20)(58 - 40)(58 - 56)]½= 281.68 ft2

#### Which of the following is a common procedural error encountered during leveling?

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Common procedural errors encountered during leveling include the rod not being held plumb, the rod not being of standard length, and the instrument not being adjusted properly. Each of these errors can be avoided by following standard procedures and training.

#### What activity reduces huge amounts of data to smaller sets of meaningful, usable data?

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Data mining is the act of reducing huge amounts of data into usable pieces of information. This is mostly done by eliminating data that isn’t interesting and looking for patterns in the rest. These patterns, as opposed to the data that underlie the patterns, are often actionable.

#### Which of the following statements is valid when considering a fence as representing a boundary?

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When all parties involved have recognized a fence as a boundary line for a long time, the fence may be considered as representing a boundary. When neighbors have agreed where the property boundaries are located, a lot line agreement (or lot line adjustment agreement) can be developed if there are no outstanding mortgages or liens on the property.

#### Why is C considered to be a low-level programming language?

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C is a low-level programming language in the sense that it gives the programmer control over memory allocation and hardware; it is low in the sense of being close to the hardware. Because it interacts with hardware directly, C is a high-performance language.

#### What is the most common way in which the foundation support cost is expressed when conducting a cost effectiveness analysis of foundation alternatives?

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The most common way in which the foundation support cost is expressed when conducting a cost effectiveness analysis of foundation alternatives is the total foundation system cost / load the foundation supports. This cost is expressed in terms of \$ / ton load supported. Other factors that are considered evaluating alternatives include local availability of materials and equipment, local contracting qualifications and experience, and environmental issues.

#### What is the difference between an algorithm and a protocol?

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A protocol determines not only what needs to happen but also who is responsible for making it happen. For example, a recipe might tell you how to bake a cake, but a protocol also determines who is responsible for buying the ingredients, mixing the batter and so forth.

#### Which of the following philosophies is described as follows: “If the behavior of a structure is linearly elastic, the forces acting on it may be separated, and the structure analyzed for separate cases. The final results are found by summing the individual results.”

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The Principle of Superposition can be described by the following: “If the behavior of a structure is linearly elastic, the forces acting on it may be separated, and the structure analyzed for separate cases. The final results are found by summing the individual results.” This principle is very useful when analyzing different types of forces acting on a structure. The Principle of Superposition can be applied to reactions, shears, moments, stresses, and strains.

#### Which of the following are examples of unethical conduct by a Professional Land Surveyor?

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All of the listed violations are examples of unethical conduct by a Professional Land Surveyor. Dependent upon the degree of violation and the State in which the Professional Land Surveyor is licensed, an ethics violator may be sent a warning letter or reprimand, he may be fined, he may be suspended from practicing as a Professional Land Surveyor for a period or time, his registration may be revoked, and/or he may face imprisonment.

#### The deflection angles of a closed traverse should equal:

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The deflection angles of a closed traverse must equal 360°. Traverses are associated with the field work of measuring angles and distances between points on the ground. Closed traverses provide the primary method used in checking survey work.

#### The American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) recommended stopping sight distances are based on the operation of which type of vehicle?

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AASHTO’s recommended stopping sight distances are based on the operation of a passenger car. In general, large trucks require a longer stopping distance than a passenger car. However, since drivers in large trucks sit higher up than a driver in a car, they are able to see substantially further down a roadway. AASHTO does not provide recommendations for bicycle or railroad car SSDs.

#### The given numbers are daily groundwater elevation readings from a monitoring well taken during a month experiencing snowmelt and extended rainfall events. 7.67.6 7.77.7 4.34.3 5.95.9 5.05.0 10.510.5 7.77.7 9.59.5 12.012.0 12.612.6 7.6 7.7 4.3 5.9 5.0 10.5 7.7 9.5 12.0 12.6 6.56.5 8.38.3 8.28.2 13.213.2 12.612.6 13.613.6 14.114.1 13.513.5 11.511.5 12.012.0 6.5 8.3 8.2 13.2 12.6 13.6 14.1 13.5 11.5 12.0 10.410.4 10.810.8 13.113.1 12.512.5 10.410.4 13.013.0 14.114.1 15.115.1 10.4 10.8 13.1 12.5 10.4 13.0 14.1 15.1 What is the sample variance of these groundwater elevation readings?

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The sample variance of the groundwater elevation readings is 9.089. Solution Use the sample variance (s2) equation s2 = Σ(sample value - sample mean)2/(number of samples-1) Where Number of samples = 28 Sample mean = Σ(sample values)/number of samples = 295.7/28 = 10.56 Σ(sample value - sample mean)2 = (7.6-10.56)2+(7.7-10.56) 2 + …… = 245.4 s2 = 245.4/27 = 9.089

#### In which of the following file formats can raster data be saved?

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TIFF, JPEG, IMG, BMP are examples of raster data file formats. Raster images can be edited and saved using a variety of different raster graphic editing software programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Microsoft Office Picture Manager, and Autodesk Sketchbook Pro.

#### The rate of flow in a force main leaving a stormwater pump station can be measured by which of the following?

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The rate of flow in a force main leaving a stormwater pump station can be measured by a Venturi meter. A Venturi meter are constructed with a converging section of pipe which increases the flow velocity and pressure loss. The rate of flow through the meter can then be calculated using the Bernoulli equation that is based on the conservation of energy fluid mechanics law.