EMT/NREMT Practice Test (Operations)
You've been dispatched to 123 Somewhere Rd in response to a call for a woman who has been hurt. As you approach the house, a man opens the door and instructs you to "get out of here" because "this is none of your concern." In this situation, what is the best course of action?
As an EMT you should never place yourself in harm’s way. If you feel a situation may be dangerous you should always wait for assistance from the police.
What offense may an EMT be charged with if a patient refuses treatment but receives treatment anyway?
To treat a patient without some form of legal consent could be considered Battery
What is the term for this practice for protecting yourself and your patient from bodily fluid transfer?
Body substance isolation is a practice of isolating all body substances (blood, urine, feces, tears, etc.) of individuals undergoing medical treatment, particularly emergency medical treatment of those who might be infected with illnesses such as HIV, or hepatitis so as to reduce as much as possible the chances of transmitting these illnesses
What law protects someone who assists an injured person from legal action?
Under the common law, Good Samaritan laws provide a defense against torts over the activity of attempted rescue.
Ambulances are most prone to collisions in which areas while responding?
Cars sitting at intersections may block the view of the ambulance operator and cannot see other cars approaching. Cars approaching the intersection when the light is changing may not want to stop and may accelerate through. Additionally, cars sitting at a stop light might not be paying attention and can accelerate without looking.
As part of the emergency warning lighting system, headlights are frequently overlooked. While ______________, headlights should be used.
Emergency warning lights are often overlooked in busy high traffic areas. Headlights can make a difference when safety counts. Even during daylight hours headlights increase the chances that the ambulance will be seen. Some headlights are wired to flash when the other emergency warning lights are on which enhances the distance downrange the ambulance can be seen.
The EMT should approach a Hazardous Materials incident from ?
When responding to a known HazMat incident, the Emergency responders need to approach the scene from up wind, uphill and up river. This keeps the plume ahead of the responders and avoids exposure of the emergency workers.
During a HazMat event, where should EMS set up?
The EMS crew is not protected with the appropriate personal protective gear to operate in the hot or warm zones. Patients must be decontaminated thoroughly prior to the EMS sector taking over care of the patient. There are no exceptions here, the potential of exposure to the hazardous material is too great
When is it acceptable to remove a patient from a hot zone without first decontaminating him or her?
It is never acceptable to skip the decontamination; the risk of exposure of the EMS crew and other health care providers is too great to allow patients to by-pass decon. Most decon teams are capable of handling life threats as the patient is going through the decontamination process
You've requested an air ambulance to transport your accident victim... You've requested an air ambulance to transport your accident victim from the scene. When the helicopter is 5 minutes away, they will contact you. They request information on the landing zone (LZ). In this safety brief, which of the following should be included?
Any obstructions which would interfere with the approach and departure of the aircraft are very important. Power lines are especially critical as they are impossible to see from the air so the air medical crew will rely on the personnel on the ground to point that information out. Type of surface is important to anticipate dust, grass or other debris which will become airborne during landing. High tension power lines which are in the area are equally important as they may be in the approach or departure pattern.
Which of the patients listed below would be suitable for air medical transfer from your location?
The high speed motor cycle mechanism is perhaps the highest degree of concern in this question. The other mechanisms do not have the potential of multiple organ systems being involved. The bee stings, while they are painful, present little risk of being ground transported or even left home to follow their physicians directions if there are no signs of anaphylaxis.
Arriving on scene of a multi-car accident... When an in-charge EMT arrives at the scene of a multi-car collision, he or she informs dispatch that they have arrived and what they have discovered. "Squad 3 has arrived on the scene. A three-car collision has occurred. All of the patients were out and walking on the scene. " What do you call this information?
A scene size up allows for several things 1) lets other responding companies know what to expect once they arrive on scene. 2) Allows for an upgrading or downgrading of the assignment. 3) lets dispatch know what to expect in adding extra resources.
What is the most important thing an EMT should do when they arrive at a scene?
Scene safety should be the number one concern for any emergency responder to any scene. By positioning the squad in a way to block the scene from traffic which might not be paying attention then all responders can work with in the scene safely. Ease of access to the vehicle is of concern but not at the risk of scene safety.
You've arrived at the site of a domestic incident involving child molestation. You're inquiring about a 5-year-elimination old's habits. When questioning this child, what word would be most suitable?
A 5-year-old will not understand urination, micturation or deltrusion. The best term to use in this instance is "pee-pee." (This is a good example where the paramedic needs to correlate life span development and effective communication knowledge.
You are in charge of developing an ambulance deployment plan for your community's EMS system. Your goal is to reduce response times while also making efficient and cost-effective use of all EMS resources available. As a result, which of the following pieces of information would be most useful in developing a strategy?
Determining the time and location of calls over the past five years is critical, since analysis may reveal patterns to which the appropriate number of EMS resources can be matched. If an increase in the number of motor vehicle collisions is seen during morning rush hour, additional units can be deployed to strategic locations so that they can readily access future incidents. Socioeconomic status may be linked to call volume and time, but by itself is not the best criterion for location of resources. Location of previous ambulance collisions is important data, and should be used to minimize collisions, not locate ambulances. While the average age of the population provides a larger picture of the medical needs of the community, as a whole it is not the best factor in dictating the deployment of resources.
Which of the following statements about continuing education does the public value the most?
Since medicine is a constantly evolving profession, the paramedic must stay abreast of current information, techniques, and medications. And while it is true within the profession that state EMS boards and the National Registry of EMTs will define specific requirements for continuing education in order to stay certified, these reasons would be least important to the community. What the community would want most is a paramedic who is abreast of the most current assessment and treatment modalities, so that they would receive the best care possible.
Which of the following patients would most benefit from critical incident stress management, according to the paramedic?
Death of a child is often a reason for a paramedic to need CISM. In addition a death of a coworker, an extreme threat to the paramedic, or any other significant incident may also be reasons for CISM. What is most important, however, is that the recognition of stress and poor coping on the part of the provider is more important than assuming the use of CISM's should be guided by the nature of the call.
Why is it so important for the paramedic to fill out an equipment checklist at the start of each shift?
Completion of an equipment/supply checklist enables the paramedic to determine the overall preparedness of the ambulance for patient care. Checklists allow the paramedic to ascertain whether all necessary supplies and equipment are present and working as well as the expiration dates on medications carried on the ambulance. This decreases liability associated with providing prehospital emergency medical services by ensuring that everything needed to properly care for a patient is present and in good working order. Missing supplies, malfunctioning equipment, and expired drugs represent sources of liability, especially if they result in improper patient care. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and US Department of Health and Human Services do not require EMS services to complete an equipment/supply checklist. Finally, insurance agencies do not require the submission of the equipment/supply checklists in order to provide ongoing liability coverage for the service.
What are the regulations or standards that regulate EMS practitioners' conduct?
Ethics are rules or standards that govern professional conduct, whereas morals are the individual's perceptions of what is right and wrong. Neither standards nor codes are terms applicable to the concept of the question.
You've been dispatched to a collision between a car and a tree. When you arrive, the automobile is completely engulfed in flames, with fire visible beneath the hood and within the passenger compartment. The driver of this automobile appears to be unconscious and slumped over the steering wheel. Which of the following is your primary concern?
While all of the answers listed are considered priorities in this scenario, the safety of yourself and your crew must always come first. Your primary responsibility is always to ensure the safety of yourself and your crew. Once this is completed, then the focus can turn to the extrication and management of the patient. Always stay attentive to the scene, however, as things may suddenly change for the worse.
Which of the following is NOT a desired outcome of an EMS system's continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs?
The benefits of a well-run Continuous Quality Improvement program for an Emergency Medical Service system go well beyond the ability to assess system performance. It allows for the collection of data for statistical analysis, provides a means by which areas of system weakness can be determined and addressed in a checks and balance manner, and also allows the ability to determine what type of continuing education courses may be offered since many times case studies are done on interesting calls. One thing that Continuous Quality Improvement programs should not do is develop and implement punitive recourses, should an area of improvement be identified. This would lead to providers who get better at hiding system weaknesses through inaccurate patient care reports and who are apprehensive to bring up concerns with management.
You should write the following statement at the end of your patient care report: The patient was clearly intoxicated and refusing to cooperate on purpose. Which of the following legal accusations can a paramedic face if they make subjective claims like this?
Libel is the act of injuring a patient’s character through written statements. Documenting personal opinion and derogatory statements expose the paramedic to Libel. Slander is similar to Libel, but refers to false or malicious statements made verbally. Malfeasance is defined as breach of duty by performing a wrongful or unlawful act. Res ipsa loquitur is a legal doctrine sometimes used in support of negligence claims.
Which of the following agencies is in charge of EMS radio communications regulation?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for the control and regulation of all nongovernmental radio communications within the United States. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is the governmental agency responsible for developing EMS curricula. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is responsible for disaster response and management. The National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians (NAEMT) is a nongovernmental professional organization dedicated to the advancement of EMS as a profession.
Which of the following statements about disposable gloves is correct?
Because gloves protect both you and your patients, most protocols now call for EMTs to wear gloves for any patient contact. Remove gloves by pulling them off inside out, so you do not touch the soiled outer surface; change gloves for each new patient contact.
When working with patients who have one of the following conditions, EMTs should wear high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) respirators.
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) respirators are worn when in contact with patients who have airborne infections, such as tuberculosis. HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B are both blood borne pathogens. Contaminants from open wounds would also be blood borne.