EMT/NREMT Practice Test (Cardiology)

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Your patient is a 52-year-old man who is experiencing dull, aching chest symptoms. He seems attentive and focused, but his skin is pale, cool, and clammy upon assessment. What's the next step?

Correct! Wrong!

Giving Oxygen to a cardiac patient as soon as possible can help reduce damage to the heart muscle.

For a newborn (0-3 months), the normal heart rate is:

Please select 2 correct answers

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The normal heart rate for a newborn is 140 – 160 and an infant’s is 120 – 140 beats per minutes. Children between the ages of 1-6 have a heart rate of 100 – 120, while children over the age of 6 have a heart rate of 80 – 100 BPM.

On the left side of the heart is a two-flap valve called the:

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The two-flap valve is called the mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve. The three-flap valve is the tricuspid valve.

The cardiovascular system, often known as the circulatory system, is made up of three basic components; which of the following is not one of these components?

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The heart, blood vessels and blood are all major components of the cardiovascular system. Myoglobin is a component of muscle. When large muscle masses are injured they give off myoglobin into the blood stream. Myoglobin molecules are large and cause problems with the renal system during times of trauma, elocution or burns.

From the outside in, identify the layers of the heart.

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The layers of the heart from the outer most to the innermost layer are: Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium. The pericardium is actually the protective sac which surrounds the heart. The heart is covered with a thin layer of slippery tissue called the epicardium, it provides a surface which can move inside the pericardium without causing friction. The myocardium is the muscle tissue of the heart which conducts electricity which causes the muscle to squeeze pumping blood. The endocardium is made of the same type of tissue as the epicardium. The endocardium is very smooth to prevent clots from forming and adhering to the valves.

Which of the following is a common complaint for chest pain caused by a cardiac event?

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Typical cardiac related chest pain is often referred to as a pressure, like "a ton of bricks on my chest" or an elephant sitting on their chest. You can rule out a cardiac event on type of chest pain described alone. Some patients will have atypical chest pain which could be described as anything from sharp pain to a pulled muscle to a tooth ache. Sharp stabbing pain, which can be located with one finger, is often a Pulmonary Embolism.

Which vein carries oxygenated blood and which artery carries deoxygenated blood?

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The pulmonary artery is the only artery to carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs for gas exchange. The pulmonary vein is the only vein to carry oxygenated blood back to the heart. Typically, the arteries carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart to the systemic circulation. Veins typically carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The aorta is the main artery exiting the left ventricle to the body and the vena cava returns blood back to the right side of the heart.

The leading causes of death in the United States are:

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Coronary heart disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is the number one threat to American health, killing an estimated 466,000 persons annually. While some predisposition to coronary heart disease is non-modifiable, many of the risk factors are behaviors that can be changed (e.g., obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and smoking). While chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and traumatic injuries represent major health problems, they do not claim lives on the same magnitude of coronary heart disease.

A child's normal heart rate between the ages of one to six is:

Correct! Wrong!

The normal heart rate for a newborn is 140 – 160 and an infant’s is 120 – 140 beats per minutes. Children between the ages of 1-6 have a heart rate of 100 – 120, while children over the age of 6 have a heart rate of 80 – 100 BPM.

What is the correct blood flow through the heart and lungs?

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Blood enters the heart through the Inferior/superior vena cavae, to the right atrium, then the right ventricle. It then goes to the lungs through the pulmonary vein, returning through the left atrium, then the left ventricle, leaving through the aorta.

Your patient is an 80-year-old man who has been experiencing shortness of breath. Which of the following conditions could your patient be experiencing?

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Geriatric patients do not always present the clear-cut signs and symptoms of cardiac problems. With the limited information given, this patient could be suffering from any of the above cardiac conditions, plus a wide variety of pulmonary illnesses as well.

On the right side of the heart, there is a three-flap valve called:

Correct! Wrong!

The three-flap valve is called the tricuspid valve, and it divides the right atrium from the right ventricle.

What is the function of the Mitral valve?

Correct! Wrong!

The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and ventricle and prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium.

The patient, a 45-year-old man, is having chest pains. After you've put him in a comfortable position, what should you do next?

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There is no information to indicate that the patient requires ventilatory support. Any patient experiencing chest discomfort should receive the highest possible concentration of oxygen.

Which of the following cardiac rhythms frequently leads to ventricular fibrillation?

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Ventricular tachycardia often converts to ventricular fibrillation, a life-threatening heart rhythm that the AED is designed to correct.

Which of the following is a common way for patients to describe heart attack pain?

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Myocardial pain is often difficult to determine because it can take on many different characters; however, patients most commonly (over 40% of the time) describe the pain of a myocardial infarction as a crushing, squeezing pressure that radiates outward to the arms and upper back.

Which chamber of the heart is responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood to the body's tissues?

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Oxygen-rich blood reaches the left atrium from the lungs via the pulmonary veins; then, the left ventricle pumps it out to the rest of the body.

When blood leaves the heart's right ventricle, where does it go?

Correct! Wrong!

Oxygen-poor blood arrives in the right atrium and is pumped out through the right ventricle via the pulmonary arteries, to the lungs.

According to research, most incidents of AED shocks delivered inappropriately are caused by

Correct! Wrong!

Almost all documented cases of inappropriate shocks have been attributed to human error, such as using the AED in a moving vehicle or operating it on a patient with a pulse.

Which of the following statements about the assessment of patients with cardiac compromise is correct?

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It is impossible to determine the actual degree of tissue damage in the field, so the purpose of the focused assessment is to gather information for the receiving facility. You should always ask about medications; it is the M of SAMPLE. The focused history has nothing to do with AED use. Cardiac pain has all sorts of presentations, making it difficult to differentiate from other conditions.

Between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart, which valve is located?

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The Tricuspid Valve is located BETWEEN the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE

You've been assigned to a 50-year-old male patient who is having a cardiac issue. If the patient's heart beats too fast or too slowly, which of the following will occur?

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If this patient becomes too bradycardic or tachicardic, they may go unconscious due to inadequate perfusion.

You've been assigned to a 50-year-old male patient who is experiencing severe chest pain. Which of the following is a contraindication to administer nitro?

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Because Nitro is a Vasodilator it should not be administered to a patient with a systolic blood pressure of below 100, because it may cause their blood pressure to drop to a dangerous level.

Between angina pectoris and a myocardial infarction, what is the difference?

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Angina pectoris is typically caused by physical or emotional stress. Symptoms usually last no more than 10 minutes and are relieved by rest.

A 64-year-old woman has just collapsed due to cardiac arrest. You are alone. Following your initial assessment, you should perform two ventilations, then

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While there is limited information that people in extended periods of cardiac arrest may benefit from CPR before defibrillation, overwhelming information indicates that defibrillating very early in a “fresh” arrest situation will provide the best opportunity for correcting the most common cause of cardiac arrest—ventricular fibrillation.

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