EMT Trauma Practice Test
Of the two types of energy trWhich type of energy transfer is a motor vehicle crash (MVC) with frontal impact, non-restrained driver with bent steering wheel, and spidered windshield?ansfer, which type would a Motor Vehicle crash (MVC) with frontal impact
Blunt trauma is not limited to just getting stabbed or shot. Blunt trauma is any injury which is caused by something penetrating the human body and having energy transferred to the human body. Blunt trauma can be caused by a decelerating injury like a front end impact of a car against a tree.
Loss of tissue in a traumatic event can be... Loss of tissue in a traumatic event can be: just soft tissue, a portion of an extremity, or an entire extremity. If your patient has lost the distal one-third of a lower extremity, what would that injury be called?
Loss of a partial or entire extremity is classified as an amputation. Loss of tissue from any area is considered as an avulsion. Any lost tissue must be protected with moist dressings and then placed in cold saline.
A large collection of blood under the skin is known as?
A hematoma is a large collection of blood, caused by larger blood vessels being damaged. A hematoma often is located between layers of tissues. A contusion is generally a smaller collection of blood within tissue such as the dermis. A bruise is a generic term which is often used interchangeably between a contusion and a larger hematoma.
Any penetrating missile traveling over 2,000 ft/sec would be classified as?
Any projectile which is traveling greater than 2,000 ft/sec is considered high velocity and carries with it a high potential for kinetic energy transfer. An example would include rifle rounds which can deliver a large projectile over long distances with devastating consequences.
You arrive on the scene of a patient who fell from a ladder. Which of the following information is NOT an important factor in care of the patient?
The height of the ladder is unimportant in your assessment as the patient may not have been at the top of the ladder when he fell.
A laceration, spurting brigA laceration, spurting bright red blood, most likely means what type of injury?ht red blood most likely means what type of injury.
The brighter the blood, the more oxygen it holds. Since arterial blood comes from the heart, it is rich in oxygen
Your patient has a laceration to the right leg which has intersected the femoral artery. You have applied direct pressure to the wound, but it continues to soak through the bandages. What should you do next?
Elevating the leg above the heart can help control bleeding. IF that fails, the next step would be to use a pressure point. When applying bandages you should not remove the old ones, just apply the new ones over the old ones.
The way a patient is injured is often referred to as the _______________?
The mechanism of injury transfers energy to the patient, causing a pattern of injury which is predictable. The way a patient is injured is referred to as the Mechanism of injury. For example, a frontal impact auto accident is considered a mechanism of injury. This allows the clinician to predict the type of injuries the patient may have and predict their response to treatment. Injury pattern can be predicted by looking at the mechanism of injury.
Your 16 year old trauma patient has what appears to be a mid-shaft femur fracture. You notice that there is a laceration directly over the suspected fracture. Bleeding is controlled. What type of fracture would this be?
Any time there is open skin over a fracture it is considered an open fracture. A greenstick is generally found in children whose bones have not fully ossified. Comminuted is a fracture resulting from extreme forces causing many smaller fractures at the site of the fracture.
When there is penetrating trauma there is a permanent cavity which is formed by the projectile contacting the tissues. How is a temporary cavity formed?
When a projectile is traveling through space it is giving off energy as it pushes away the air molecules. When it impacts with human tissue, kinetic energy is transferred from the projectile to the tissue. When this projectile is a high velocity missile, the tissue which absorbs this energy transfer is often damaged but not disrupted enough to be permanently damaged.
When approaching a scene of trauma incident, what is your first order of business?
Scene safety must be the first order of business upon approaching the scene. If you are injured then you cannot help those you were called to help. In addition, you will now compound the incident since you are now a victim. Body substance isolation is important after you arrive at the scene and approach the patient (s). Once you find the patient, then Airway/C-spine control are the next steps.
Your trauma patient has her left hand caught between rollers on a conveyor belt... Your trauma patient has her left hand caught between rollers on a conveyor belt. Extrication takes 30 minutes. Evaluation of the injury during extrication showed delayed capillary refill distal to the injury. Post extrication shows rapid capillary refill distal to the injury deformity mid-palm. There are no obvious fractures, no lacerations, and minor swelling. Knowing that crush injuries can cause many other problems, which is NOT considered a crush injury complication?
Crush injuries occur when tissue is caught between two objects causing increased pressure. When this pressure is exerted over a long period of time, tissue is damaged resulting in lacerations, fractures and anaerobic injuries. When blood flow is cut off, oxygen does not make it to the tissue which results in a reversion to anaerobic metabolism generating lactic and pyruvic acids. In time, this damages more tissue causing the release of more acids and by-products of incomplete metabolism. Eventual results are more swelling and coagulation problems, loss of tissue and loss of life.
In any traumatic event where there is tissue damage that caused bleeding, the bleeding needs to be controlled. What are the proper steps to bleeding control?
Direct pressure stops 90% of all bleeding and should be done first. If direct pressure does not work in the first minute or two, then digital pressure should be applied next. Next steps include elevation and finally a tourniquet for uncontrolled or excessive bleeding. Pressure dressings should only be used once bleeding has stopped.
You are at the scene of an MVA, in which there are three patients, all of which have minor visible injuries. Two are refusing treatment and the last is complaining of neck and back pain. How should you proceed?
All patient refusals must be an informed refusal and in writing. If you treat all three patients even though they refused you are guilty of battery
Your patient is a 17 year old male found face down in a swimming pool. He is currently being held face up at the surface of the water. He is unconscious but breathing and has a pulse. What is the best course of action for this patient?
Because you do not know what caused the patient to became unconscious, spinal precautions need to be taken.
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