CNA Infection Control
Blood-borne infections include
Hepatitis is a serious condition transmitted by blood. It is usually spread by sharing needles, sex, or needle sticks. Pneumonia, chicken pox, and measles are all airborne diseases. Pneumonia and measles are spread by coughing and sneezing. The varicella virus, which causes chicken pox and shingles, is one of the most contagious viruses. It is transmitted when someone scratches the blisters and the virus is released into the air. Measles pathogens can remain in the air for two hours after a cough or sneeze.
While Mr. Jones is visiting his wife, you notice that he is sneezing and blowing his nose. What is the best step?
Teach Mr. Jones about respiratory hygiene, also called cough etiquette. When a visitor, patient, or staff member is coughing and sneezing, proper technique can keep pathogens from spreading. Covering the mouth is the first important step. Using tissues, and disposing them in a receptacle, is better than using the hands to cover the mouth. Hands should be washed after each episode. Stay at least three feet from others. If this is not possible, a mask should be worn.
While emptying the trash in a client's room, you get stuck by a needle that should have been placed in the sharps container. What is the first thing to do?
After an accidental needle stick, immediately wash the site for several minutes with warm soap and water. Do not squeeze or pinch the wound. Notify your supervisor and go to Employee Health or the Emergency Department for evaluation. Blood may be drawn for confidential HIV and Hepatitis B. tests. (The client may also be tested if the situation indicates a risk.) An Incident Report will be completed for follow-up. Never ignore a needle stick, even if the client seems safe.
Precautions for a patient in respiratory isolation include all EXCEPT
Respiratory isolation prevents contaminated air from being breathed by others. Patients with serious respiratory illnesses, such as influenza or tuberculosis, sneeze or cough droplets into the air. The patients are confined to a private room with a special air system. Staff and visitors wear masks. Proper hand washing technique is essential.
When washing your hands, apply the soap
Wetting your hands helps soap remove soil, bacteria, and oil from the skin. Water temperature doesn't need to be hot. After applying soap, rub hands together for 20-30 seconds. Scrub between fingers and under the nails. Wash at least one inch above the wrist. Rinse with clean water, with fingers pointed down to allow the water to run down into the sink. Dry hands well.
To prevent the spread of infection, how should the nurse aide handle the soiled linens removed from a client’s bed?
Infection can be spread by soiled linen. Wear gloves when removing soiled linen from a bed or wheelchair, and take it immediately to a designated bag or container. Do not shake, as this can release micro-organisms into the air. Keep soiled linen (and all contaminated items) away from clothing. Do not place the soiled linen on any surface such as a table, countertop, or the floor. Wash hands immediately after removing gloves.
After cleaning a resident's dentures, you remove and discard your gloves. What is the next step?
Although gloves add an important layer of protection, they are not considered completely barrier-proof. There can be microscopic holes or tears in the gloves. Hand washing is always performed before and after each patient contact, as well as after removing gloves. This also removes any powder or irritants from the gloves. Leave the discarded gloves in the patient's room before going to another room.
At the start of a bed bath, Mrs. Smith takes washcloth to clean her perineal area and puts it back into the basin of water. The nurse aide should
When giving or assisting with a bed bath, always start with the face and neck. Keep the areas not being washed covered with blankets, for warmth and privacy. After washing the body, change the water. The genital area is the last to be washed. If the patient is able to help, let them wash. Females are washed from front to back. When washing males, wash around the testicles. To clean the buttocks, place the client on their side, facing away from you.
During dinner, a client who is HIV-positive accidentally breaks a glass and cuts himself. What is the proper procedure?
Regardless of a client's medical history, all blood spills are treated as potentially infectious. The first step is to clear the area to prevent others from access. Put on disposable gloves; double-gloving is appropriate. The spill must be cleaned up quickly with a strong bleach solution. All health care facilities are required to have OSHA-approved materials on hand. and a strict procedure is followed. Clean up is done with disposable items. Items are then double-bagged, then placed in a hazard bag for proper disposal. The client's injury is treated following Standard Precaution protocols for blood exposure. All health care employees must attend annual training on blood-borne pathogens.
All body fluids are considered infectious EXCEPT
Standard Precautions mean that every body fluid is considered to be potentially infectious. These include: all blood and blood products; body fluids such as semen and vaginal secretions. During dental or oral procedures, saliva is considered potentially infectious. Sweat and tears do not contain blood or pathogens in large numbers, so they aren't treated as infectious.
All are types of pathogens EXCEPT
Pathogens are micro-organisms that cause disease and illness. Everyone is exposed to pathogens, but when the immune system can't fight, the client becomes sick. A bacterium, virus, or fungus can each be a pathogen. Examples of a bacterial infections are pneumonia and food poisoning. A virus can cause chicken pox and hepatitis. An example of a fungal infection is athlete's foot.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is used to
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) means the clothing and devices that are designed to protect the person wearing them from being exposed to or passing along an infection or disease. Every healthcare setting has PPE, such as gloves and masks. For example, patients and visitors may be asked to wear a mask if they don't feel well. Other PPE includes face shields, special gowns, caps, and facemasks or respirators. PPE also protects patients who are at risk, such as bone marrow recipients. Most PPE is disposable, but some settings require individual PPE such as well-fitting goggles. PPE never eliminates the need for proper hand hygiene.
When wearing gloves, it is important to remember
Besides protecting against possible infections, gloves should be worn when using disinfectants and chemicals to avoid skin irritation. Always change gloves if hands become moist. Some chemicals, such as alcohol, can harm gloves. Gloves can develop holes and tears from jewelry and long nails. After putting gloves on, check for small rips or holes before starting a procedure.
Which conditions promotes the growth of bacteria?
All bacteria need water to survive. This is why a client's dressings must be kept dry. The human body provides the perfect temperature for bacteria to quickly multiply. Most types of bacteria prefer darkness, because the sun's UV light can destroy it.
It is important that a client's dressings remain
Dressings should always remain clean and dry. If a dressing becomes moist, bacteria can multiply and cause a serious infection. If you observe a damp dressing, or any signs of redness and inflammation, notify the nurse. Check your facility's policies regarding the role of the nurse aide in wound care. Sometimes only a nurse can assess or change a dressing.
When caring for a patient with MRSA, the nurse aide should wear
MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is an infection that is difficult to treat because it is resistant to many antibiotics. People who are sick, elderly, or have weak immune systems are susceptible. Most often, it appears as a skin infection or an infection around a surgical site, feeding tube, or catheter. It is spread by contact. To prevent getting or spreading it, use Standard Precautions when providing care to a patient with MRSA. Hand washing is essential, as always. Wear gloves and a gown when in touching the patient. If any splash or spray of body fluid is expected, wear mask, and a face shield or goggles.
The most important way to prevent the spread of infection is
Hand washing is the international standard for preventing the spread of infection. Hands must be washed before and after each client contact, after removing gloves, using the toilet, and coughing or sneezing. Hands are always washed after touching a dirty or contaminated item, handling food, and shaking hands. Pet owners should wash their hands after picking up waste and handling pet toys or objects.
Used disposable supplies and equipment should be discarded
All disposable items used in client care are considered to be contaminated. This includes masks, gloves, paper gowns, and dressings. Each room or area should have a specific container for dirty supplies. Needles, scalpels, and other sharps must go into designated containers. Do not put dirty supplies in a standard trash receptacle.
After Mr. Johnson’s bath, the nurse aide realizes she needs another towel to completely dry Mr. Johnson. The nurse aide should
Gather all supplies before beginning a bath or shower. If you discover that you need something, never leave a client alone, even for a few minutes. Ask a co-worker to get what you need. Each client should use clean towels and linens. If all towels are not used during a bath, do not return them to the clean supply cart. They must be treated as soiled.
Infection control practices that prevent the transmission of disease are called
Standard Precautions (formerly called Universal Precautions) are used all over the world to protect patients from transmission of pathogens that come from blood, body fluids, skin, and mucous membranes. Hand washing is a major aspect of Standard Precautions, but other measures are also used. These include wearing gloves, gowns, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Other measures are preventing needle sticks and proper respiratory etiquette. The World Health Organization endorses Standard Precautions for every healthcare setting.