CMA Practice Test 4
What is a healthy BMI for a normal adult?
BMI (Body Mass Index) is calculated by dividing the body mass in kilograms by the body height in meters squared (there are many charts to save you having to make this calculation yourself). A BMI between 18 and 25 is considered healthy; anything under 18 is underweight, over 25 is overweight and over 30 is obese. Be aware that some people may fall outside the normal range and still be healthy, for example a power athlete carrying a lot of muscle may have a BMI over 25 and still be perfectly healthy.
When choosing a site to place electrodes for an ECG test, the site should be all of these things except…?
In order to achieve the best results, electrodes should be placed on a site that is clean, smooth and dry. Any moisture should be wiped away as it could interfere with the adhesion of the electrodes and so interfere with clear results.
In which of these circumstances may you refuse to give medical treatment to a person with HIV/AIDS?
Both the AMA and the ADA have issued ethical guidance that patients with HIV/AIDS have a right to treatment. A medical practitioner may not withhold treatment from a patient because they have HIV/AIDS, regardless of the reason for their infection or their current treatment. If a practitioner is genuinely not competent to treat a patient with HIV/AIDS they must pass the case to a practitioner who is.
Payment for treatment should be taken/organized when?
It is vital that payment is taken, or insurance company authorization of the treatment is obtained, before treatment is given. If this is not done the treatment provider risks potentially severe losses in the event of a dispute.
If a patient starts accusing you of being frightened of something they are really frightened of themselves, they are using which defense mechanism?
Projection is the way in which a person takes thoughts they don’t want and imposes them on another, as a way of denying they’re having those thoughts. An example might be a patient who wants not to have a procedure because they think it’s too risky: instead of admitting this they might start accusing the physician of thinking it’s too risky.
When should patient encounter forms be prepared for staff?
Any consultation should be recorded on a patient encounter form. Best practice is to have these ready before the working day begins so that medical staff can have them ready for their appointments.
In Erikson’s stages of human development, a young adult who “maladopts” in the intimacy vs isolation stage is in danger of what?
Erikson proposes varying stages of human development, each of which may become warped by maladoption. In young adults he proposes that there is a need for intimacy, for “losing oneself” in another, but that this search for intimacy, when unfulfilled, can lead to promiscuity.
Which sequence outlines the correct flow of blood through the heart? I. Blood exits through the aorta. II. Blood exits through the pulmonary artery to go to the lungs. III. Blood enters the left atrium. IV. Blood passes through the mitral valve. V. Blood enters the right atrium.
Blood enters the heart on the right side, collecting in the right atrium. After moving through the right ventricle, blood leaves the heart through the pulmonary artery to travel to the lungs to release carbon dioxide and absorb oxygen. The blood returns to the left side of the heart, through the pulmonary vein, going to the left atrium, then through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. Lastly, the blood leaves the heart through the aorta. The only answer option that puts this in the correct order is "V, II, III, IV, I".
Which of these prefixes is used in words referring to the liver?
From the Greek hepar, meaning liver, hepat- is a prefix used for words relating to that organ. Examples are hepatologist, a specialist in the liver (and related gastric organs), hepatitis, a liver infection, hepatocarcinogen, a substance that can cause cancer of the liver.
If you have to deal with a fire and are using an extinguisher, where should you aim the jet?
The aim of a fire extinguisher is to put out the root of the fire, which will be at the base of the flames. Always make sure that you are using the correct type of fire extinguisher for the blaze you are tackling (this will be indicated on the extinguisher), for example using a water fire extinguisher on an electrical fire may cause
Which of these is the abbreviation for a microgram?
A microgram is one millionth of a gram and is abbreviated mcg. It is vital that all people prescribing medicine know the difference between different units, as a mistake can be dangerous or even fatal. For example if a milligram of a drug is administered instead of a microgram the patient will be receiving a dose 1000 times stronger than the one prescribed.
Which of these is not a type of patient record?
It's important that patient medical records should be properly designated regarding their current status and that this data should be changed as often as necessary. The three categories are active (currently undergoing treatment), inactive (not currently undergoing treatment but may return to treatment in future) or closed (patient has been discharged and is not expected to return).
An OBGYN specialist deals with what?
OBGYN is short for Obstetrics and Gynecology. Obstetrics is the delivering of babies in childbirth, while Gynecology is the study and treatment of disorders of the female reproductive system. Medical professionals may be concerned with one or other of these fields or work in both.
Spirometry is used to measure what?
A spirometer measures breath flow from the lungs. It is useful in diagnosing asthma, bronchial conditions and many other diseases. It's important to note that spirometry generally involves forceful expelling of air and so may be harmful to some patients, for example those who have recently undergone thoracic or abdominal surgery.
For maximum efficiency, individual patient records should be organized by…?
Although certain aspects of a patient record maybe organized by time, for example consultation record sheets, it is very time-consuming for a physician to trawl through a file seeking the information they require. For this reason good recordkeeping will involve organizing patient treatment by category (e.g. medication prescribed, surgeries undergone etc.) so that the physician can immediately access the information they require.
If medication is taken sublingually it is taken…?
Medications administered sublingually are placed between the cheek and gum to dissolve. Cardiovascular drugs, steroids and barbiturates are some examples of drugs that can be administered in this fashion. The advantage of this method of administration is that the medication passes directly into the bloodstream through the capillaries in the mouth, rather than going through the gastric system and the liver, which can degrade drugs and make them less effective.
Which of these is the baseline procedure for preventing the spread of disease in medical institutions?
Hand-to-hand and hand to surface contact is the most common way for infection to spread in medical institutions. Not everyone can wear gloves all day, but everyone can wash their hands thoroughly before and after patient contact, after using the bathroom, before eating food etc. Make sure you follow the correct procedure at all times and encourage colleagues, visitors and patients to do the same.
What valve is responsible for preventing the backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium?
The pulmonary valve and the semilunar valve are the same structure which prevent blood backflow between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The mitral valve is located between the left ventricle and left atrium. The aortic valve is the structure between the left ventricle and the aorta. The only valve located on the right side between the right atrium and right ventricle is the tricuspid valve, or answer option "Tricuspid valve".
What does OSHA stand for?
The OSHA is the Occupational Safety and Health Act. It contains provisions for the safe operation of workplaces, and has specific sections dealing with healthcare workplaces. All workers in a medical office should be aware of the provisions of the act that apply to their duties.
When prepping a patient for an ECG, the electrodes from Lead #1 should be placed where?
All leads for an ECG have specific locations that should be carefully followed. The electrodes for the first lead should be placed on the left and right arms, in a place where there is no thick muscle.
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