Biology Practice Test for the HESI® exam
Which of the following is not a part of the body’s chemical defense system against infection?
Agranulocytes are a type of white blood cell and therefore are not a part of the body’s chemical defense system.
Which of the following is considered an example of naturally acquired passive immunity?
Natural passive immunity occurs when live antibodies are transferred from one individual to another, such as when anti-bodies are transferred from a mother to her baby via breast milk.
Worms lack which of these?
Worms lack eyes, ears, and a nose, but they do have brains.
Which organelle is responsible for generating ATP that is used for chemical energy?
The mitochondrion is often referred to as the “power plant” of the cell, because it generates ATP, the cell’s source of chemical energy.
Which of the following is true with regard to eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
One of the major differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells contain organelles, such as mitochondria and lysosomes, whereas prokaryotic cells do not.
Positive feedback is a mechanism used by the body that results in amplification or enhancement of a signal that has already been activated. An example of this would be:
Contractions in childbirth are considered a positive feedback loop because each contraction stimulates the brain to release more Oxytocin, which in turn stimulates more contractions
When placed in a hypotonic solution, a cell will do which of the following?
Water always moves from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration. A hypotonic solution contains less solutes and more water than the contents inside of the cell, so water will move from outside of the cell to inside, causing it to swell.
Which is NOT an effect of photo-oxidation?
Photo-oxidation occurs when UV light and ozone break down the surface of polymers. The result is the material becoming more brittle and discolored and less strong and smooth.
The movement of a substance across a cell membrane from low to high concentration is known as what?
Active transport is the movement of molecules against their concentration gradient, such as when moving from low to high concentration
During which stage of mitosis does the single cell split into two separate daughter cells?
During telophase, cytokinesis is completed and a single cell splits into two daughter cells
Which of the following is NOT an example of an ecosystem?
An ecosystem is a community of living and non-living things that interact with each other and their environment. The ozone does not satisfy this definition because living and non-living things do not live and interact there.
Decomposition occurs fastest in which type of environment?
The microbes involved in decomposition need oxygen and they function more quickly in a moist environment. This is why decomposition occurs at faster rates in moist, oxygenated areas. If an environment is too wet, however, there are fewer spaces for oxygen and this can slow the process.
In a bird or a bee, the crop is responsible for what?
The crop is a muscular pouch that is part of the bird’s digestive system
One partner benefitting while the other is harmed is what form of symbiotic relationship?
Parasitism is a non-mutual relationship where one organism benefits or feeds off another but does not kill them, such as with human head lice.
The stigma of a flower serves what purpose?
The stigma collects pollen at pollination. Stigmas can either be long and thin or globe-shaped.
Mycology is defined as the study of what?
Mycology is the study of fungi and its properties and taxonomy.
Which of the following taxonomic ranks is arranged to show broadest, most inclusive to narrowest, most exclusive?
From broadest to most narrow, the order of taxonomic rank is: Life, Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
The ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions is…
Homeostasis is defined as the regulation of variables so that internal conditions remain stable and balanced.
Which of the following is NOT a biotic factor?
A biotic factor is a living thing such as a plant or animal. Rocks do not meet this definition.
Which is not a morphology of bacterial classification?
Bacteria are classified according to their morphological features, including cell shape, motility, and Gram stain reaction. Although positive or negative reaction to the Gram stain test is a morphological feature of bacteria, it is not a bacterial classification.
Halophile archaebacteria only survive in which type of environment?
The word “halophile” derives from a Greek word meaning “salt-loving.”
What are bacteria that need oxygen to survive called?
Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to live and grow, whereas anaerobic bacteria do not.
Where do bacteria live?
Bacteria are found in various places, including soil, water, and in the human body
What is the cilium-like structure present in certain bacteria cells that allows them to attach to a host tissue?
Fimbria are appendages found on many Gram-negative (and some Gram-positive) bacteria that allow them to attach to other bacteria, cells, or inanimate objects.
Which of the following is a disease not caused by bacteria?
Parkinson’s is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is not caused by bacterial infection
Thigmotropism is the oriented growth of an organism in response to which of the following?
Thigmotropism occurs when a plant grows in response to stimuli or touch. Climbing vines are an example of a plant that exhibit this phenomena
Which chemical(s) carry an impulse along a nerve cell?
Nerve signals are carried out in part by the coordinated movement of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane.
Which of the following is true of viruses?
Viruses are considered acellular because they do not have organelles or cytoplasm. All viruses are parasitic, as they depend on a host source to be able to reproduce. Viruses can be composed of either DNA or RNA, but not both. If they are composed of RNA, they are called a retrovirus. Viruses are typically much smaller than bacteria.
Meiosis produces ____ cells and mitosis produces ____ cells.
Meiosis and mitosis are two ways in which cells reproduce. Meiosis is a form of sexual reproduction and entails two cellular divisions and the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes present in the original parent cell. Meiosis begins with a diploid cell and produces four haploid cells. Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction and entails one cellular division and the formation of two daughter cells, each with the exact chromosomal profile of the original parent cell. Mitosis begins with a somatic, or body cell, and produces two diploid cells.
Which of the following correctly matches photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration with their corresponding, balanced chemical equations?
Photosynthesis is the process by which carbon dioxide, water, and light are converted into usable chemical energy in the form of glucose, C6H12O6. Organisms possessing chlorophyll exhibit this capability. Photosynthesis, expressed as a balanced chemical equation: Photosynthesis: 6CO2+6H2O+EM Radiation →C6H12O6+6O2 C6H12O6+6O2 →6CO2+6H2O+36ATP
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