ACT Science Quiz 2

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The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 5. Which hypotheses operate on the assumption that gases have the potential to trap heat in earth’s atmosphere?

Correct! Wrong!

(D) All three hypotheses operate on the assumption that gases trap heat within the earth’s atmosphere. The hypotheses disagree on the magnitude of this effect and the type of gases that trap heat. But they all agree that at least some gases have this ability.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 7. In which way is hypothesis 2 similar to hypothesis 1?

Correct! Wrong!

(D) Both hypotheses 1 and 2 conclude the temperature of the earth will change as a result of the heat trapping potential of one or more gases. Neither hypothesis mentioned safety issues for cities near sealines. Additionally, neither claim that temperature influences gas, they claim that gas influences temperature. Hypothesis 2 does not believe nitrous oxide has a role in heat trapping, making answer C incorrect.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 3. According to the author of hypothesis 2, would it be possible for earth’s temperature to increase if the amount of heat methane traps in the atmosphere increased?

Correct! Wrong!

(B) Yes, the hypothesis claims methane isn’t trapping a sufficient amount of heat. Hypothesis 2 justifies its conclusion by explaining temperature is only decreasing because methane is trapping less heat than is being released. Logically, the author of this hypothesis would support that if the inverse were true, the inverse of their conclusions would be correct.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 4. Which statement, if true, would disprove hypothesis 3?

Correct! Wrong!

(C) The hypothesis would be disproved if by considering the heat trapping effects of methane and nitrous oxide, more heat is trapped in the earth than escapes. Firstly, the hypothesis claims only nitrous oxide traps heat. If methane were shown to trap heat this hypothesis would be proven false. Secondly, the hypothesis claims and bases its conclusion on the notion that the amount of heat trapped in earth generally equals the heat that escapes leading to an equilibrium. If it were observed that more heat was trapped than released, the conclusion of hypothesis 3 would be altered.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 2. Which hypothesis, if any, asserts that the effects of methane but not nitrous oxide will increase sea levels?

Correct! Wrong!

(D) None of the three hypotheses claim that methane but not nitrous oxide will lead to increasing sea levels. Hypothesis 1 claims the heat trapping effects of both gases will lead to increasing sea levels, but claims that this will be due to the effects of both methane and nitrous oxide. Hypothesis 2 claims methane but not nitrous oxide will affect sea levels by decreasing them, not increasing. Hypothesis 3 claims there will be no impact on sea levels.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 1. Which hypothesis, if any, asserts that the effect on temperature of heat trapping gases is negligible?

Correct! Wrong!

(C) Hypothesis 3 is the only hypothesis that asserts the effects of heat trapping gases is negligible. Hypothesis 1 and 2 both claim that by trapping either too much heat or not enough the temperature of the earth will change. Hypothesis 3 claims that the environment of the earth will not be impacted by heat trapping gases.

The presence of gases in earth’s atmosphere is a constant. Certain gases can absorb and hold onto heat from their environment. These gases are typically comprised of three molecules held together tenuously, which causes them to vibrate when they absorb heat. The motion of their vibrations leads to the release of their stored heat to the outside environment. The heat they release is typically quickly absorbed by other similar gases nearby. These gases remain in earth’s atmosphere for a long time after being introduced. Because of this they can trap heat within the atmosphere, preventing it from leaving, by absorbing heat and releasing heat to be absorbed by other nearby similar gases. Hypothesis 1 Gases such as methane and nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. Trapping heat in the earth’s atmosphere leads to a greenhouse effect, gradually increasing the temperature of the earth. This increase in the earth’s temperature will lead to the melting of glaciers, increasing sea level. Hypothesis 2 Gases such as methane but not nitrous oxide trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat methane traps in the earth’s atmosphere is less than the heat that escapes the earth leading to a global cooling effect, gradually decreasing the temperature of the earth. This decrease in earth’s temperature will lead to the development of more glaciers, decreasing sea level. Hypothesis 3 Gases such as nitrous oxide but not methane trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere. The heat nitrous oxide traps in the earth’s atmosphere is equal to the heat that escapes the earth leaving the temperature of the earth generally unchanged. The earth’s environment will remain largely unchanged by the heat trapping properties of nitrous oxide. 6. Gasses that exist in the atmosphere remain in it for varying amounts of time. Two gases mentioned in each hypothesis, nitrous oxide and methane, have different ‘lifespans’ in the earth’s atmosphere. How do they relate?

Correct! Wrong!

(A) Nitrous oxide lasts longer than methane. It is easier and more frequent for methane to be removed from the earth’s atmosphere than nitrous oxide. In being removed, their atmospheric heat trapping potential becomes null.

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